COSMIN database

A review and psychometric evaluation of pregnancy-specific stress measures

Alderdice, F., Lynn, F., and Lobel, M.
Considerable evidence has accumulated on the association between pregnancy-specific stress and adverse birth outcomes with an increasing number of measures of pregnancy-specific stress being developed internationally. However, the introduction of these measures has not always been theoretically or psychometrically grounded, resulting in questions about the quality and direction of such research. This review summarizes evidence on the reliability and validity of pregnancy-specific stress measures identified between 1980 and October 2010. Fifteen pregnancy-specific stress measures were identified. Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranged from 0.51-0.96 and predictive validity data on preterm birth were reported for five measures. Convergent validity data suggest that pregnancy-specific stress is related to, but distinct from, global stress. Findings from this review consolidate current knowledge on pregnancy-specific stress as a consistent predictor of premature birth. This review also advances awareness of the range of measures of pregnancy-specific stress and documents their strengths and limitations based on published reliability and validity data. Careful consideration needs to be given as to which measures to use in future research to maximize the development of stress theory in pregnancy and appropriate interventions for women who experience stress in pregnancy. An international, strategic collaboration is recommended to advance knowledge in this area of study.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol
1743-8942 (Electronic)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Cognitive/mental state
Adults (18-65)
Pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium and related symptom
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
A-Z Stress Scale
CWS - Cambridge Worry Scale
CWS Revised
HRPSS - High-Risk Pregnancy Stress Scale
OWLS - Oxford Worries about Labour Scale
PAS - Pregnancy Anxiety Scale
PAS Revised
PDQ - Prenatal Distress Questionnaire
PDQ Revised
PEQ - Pregnancy Experiences Questionnaire
PES - Pregnancy Experience Scale-Hassles Subscale
PES-Revised - Pregnancy Experience Scale-Revised
POQ - Pregnancy Outcome Questionnaire
PPP - Prenatal Psychosocial Profile Stress Subscale
PRAQ - Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire
PRAQ-R - Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire Revised
PRAS - Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Scale
PRAS Revision 1
PRAS Shortened Version 1
PRAS Shortened Version 2
PSAS - Pregnancy-Specific Anxiety Scale
PSEI - Prenatal Social Environment Inventory
PSEI Revised
PSRS - Pregnancy Stress Rating Scale