COSMIN database

Psychometric evidence of self-reported questionnaires for patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review

Esculier, J. F., Roy, J. S., and Bouyer, L. J.
PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review of psychometric properties of self-reported questionnaires used to assess the level of symptoms and disability in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS).

METHODS: A structured search was conducted in four databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, SportDiscus). A total of 24 studies about five different self-reported questionnaires were analyzed. A pair of independent raters extracted data on validity, reliability and responsiveness to change, and performed critical appraisal (0-100%).

RESULTS: Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADLS), Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm Scale (LS) present excellent test-retest reliability (weighted average intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC] > 0.80), whereas Functional Index Questionnaire (FIQ) is moderately reliable (ICC = 0.61). Minimal detectable change is 8.3% for ADLS, 9.0% for AKPS, 19% for FIQ, 8.5% for IKDC and 30% for LS. ADLS, AKPS, IKDC and LS are highly responsive (effect size/standardized response mean >0.95) in individuals with PFPS, while FIQ is lowly responsive (effect size = 0.49).

CONCLUSION: Based on available evidence, ADLS presents the best psychometric properties and should be preferred when evaluating patients with PFPS. AKPS and IKDC are also adequate, while FIQ and LS are not recommended for individuals with PFPS.

IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION: While several questionnaires have been developed to assess symptoms and functional limitations caused by knee pain, their psychometric properties can vary depending on the condition presented by the patient. The Activities of Daily Living Scale of the Knee Outcome Survey should be preferred by clinicians when evaluating a patient with PFPS. The Anterior Knee Pain Scale and International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective knee evaluation are also adequate for use with this population. The Functional Index Questionnaire and Lysholm Scale are not recommended for PFPS.
Disabil Rehabil
1464-5165 (Electronic)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Physical state
Functional status:
Physical functioning
Adults (18-65)
Children (0-18)
Seniors (65+)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
ADLS - Activity of Daily Living Scale
AKPS - Anterior Knee Pain Scale [alias: KPS - Kujala Patellofemoral Score Questionnaire]   
FIQ - Funtional Index Questionnaire
IKDC Subjective Knee Form - International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form
Lysholm (Knee) Score