COSMIN database

Outcome measures in amputation rehabilitation: ICF body functions

Hebert, J. S., Wolfe, D. L., Miller, W. C., Deathe, A. B., Devlin, M., and Pallaveshi, L.
PURPOSE: To identify and evaluate the lower limb amputation rehabilitation outcome measurement instruments that quantify those outcomes classified within the International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) category of body function or structure. This was done to summarise the current evidence base for the most commonly used outcome measurement tools and to provide clinicians with recommendations on how specific tools might be selected for use.

METHOD: A systematic review of the literature associated with outcome measurement in lower limb amputation rehabilitation was conducted. Only articles containing data related to metric properties (reliability, validity or responsiveness) for an instrument were included. Articles were identified by electronic and hand-searching techniques and were subsequently classified according to the ICF.

RESULTS: Sixteen instruments were identified that were classified into one of Global mental function (12), Sensory and pain (1), Cardiovascular and respiratory (1) and Neuromusculoskeletal and movement (2). Evidence about metric properties and clinical utility was summarised in tables, which formed the basis for conclusions.

CONCLUSIONS: Few well-validated body function tools exist in the amputee literature, which may explain their lack of widespread use. For all scales, responsiveness to intervention has not been well established and should be the focus of future studies along with continued establishment of validity and reliability.
Disabil Rehabil
0963-8288 (Print)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Physical state
Functional status:
Cognitive/mental functioning
Physical functioning
Adults (18-65)
Children (0-18)
Seniors (65+)
Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
4 - Performance-based tests
6 - Clinical rating scales
7 - Observations
9 - Laboratory tests
AALQ - Attitudes to Artificial Limbs Questionnaire
ABC scale - Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (versions: ABC-6; ABCm)   
ABIS - Amputee Body Image Scale
ARBIS - Amputation-Related Body Image Scale
BDI - Beck Depression Inventory (versions: mBDI)   
BIQ - Body Image Questionnaire
CES-D - Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (versions: CES-D-R; CES-D-8; CES-D-10; CES-D-11; CES-D-15; CES-D-20; CES-D-Children; CES-D-SF; CES-D m)   
EEARB - Engagement in Everyday Activities involving Revealing the Body
GDS - Geriatric Depression Scale (versions: GDS-SF; GDS-5; GDS-15)   
GHQ - General Health Questionnaire (versions: original = GHQ-60; GHQ-12; GHQ-20; GHQ-28; GHQW-30; GHQ-36)
HADS - Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale   
MBSRQ - Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire
One leg cycling test
Postural sway
SCS - Socket Comfort Score
Walking Speed