COSMIN database

Evaluation of instruments for measuring the burden of sport and active recreation injury

Andrew, N. E., Gabbe, B. J., Wolfe, R., and Cameron, P. A.
Sport and active recreation injuries are common. Participants are generally young, healthy and physically active individuals and as a result their injuries can have long-ranging effects for both the individuals and society. Accurate and appropriate measurement of the outcomes of sport and active recreation injuries is essential for understanding the time frame and quality of recovery, and quantifying the burden of these injuries. The WHO has developed a framework that can be used for studying health-related outcomes called the International Classification of Function (ICF). As such, the ICF is a useful tool for assessing the suitability of outcome measures for general sport and active recreation populations. This article provides a review of outcome measures that are potentially suitable for use in a general sport and active recreation injury population, assessed within the framework of the ICF. An extensive literature search was performed to identify instruments used in sport and active recreation (and general) injury populations that would be suitable for measuring the outcomes and burden of sport and recreation injuries and return to physical activity. The search identified six health status and health-related quality-of-life (HR-QOL) measures and five functional outcome measures. Of the outcome measures reviewed, the Short Form-36 was the most commonly used and covered many of the areas relevant to a sport and active recreation population. The comprehensiveness of the Sickness Impact Profile-36 meant that it contained many relevant items; however, its usefulness is limited by its high level of responder burden. The Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment provided a detailed measure of function, appropriate to a sport and active recreation population, and the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended can provide a suitable global measure of function. The Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire is a potential means of measuring return to physical activity for this group. There are no outcome measures specifically designed to measure outcomes in a general sport and active recreation population. There are, however, existing measures that when used in combination have the potential to provide a comprehensive assessment of injury outcomes in this group. Future research should focus on validating existing measures suitable for a sport and active recreation population as well as developing an ICF sport and active recreation core set of items. An ICF core set would assist researchers and clinicians in selecting the combination of outcome measures most appropriate to their needs as well forming the basis for the development of a specific sport and active recreation outcome measure.
Sports Med
1179-2035 (Electronic)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Cognitive/mental state
Emotional state
Physical state
Functional status:
Cognitive/mental functioning
Physical functioning
Role functioning
Social functioning
General health perceptions / HRQoL:
Health-related quality of life
Adults (18-65)
Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
2 - Interviews
AQoL - Assessment of Quality of Life
EQ-5D - EuroQoL-5 Dimensions   
FAM - Functional Assessment Measure
FCI - Functional Capacity Index
FIM - Functional Independence Measure (Also modified version exists)
GLETQ - Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire
GOSE - Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended
GOS - Glasgow Outcome Scale
IPAQ - International Physical Activity Questionnaire   
MFA - Musculoskeletal Function Assessment
PPAQ - Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire
QWB - Quality of Well-Being Scale
SF-12 - 12-item Short Form Health Survey [alias: RAND-12]
SF-36 - 36-item Short Form Health Survey [alias: RAND-36][alias: Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-36]]    |  | also see:
SIP-136 - Sickness Impact Profile 136
SIP-68 - Sickness Impact Profile 68
SMFA - Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment