COSMIN database

Systematic literature review: outcome measures for child and adolescent mental health services

Hunter, J., Higginson, I., and Garralda, E.
BACKGROUND: Outcome measurement is an important component of health care service evaluation. The aim of this paper is to review child and adolescent mental health outcome measures and identify outcome measurement tools for use in routine clinical practice.

METHOD: A systematic literature review was undertaken, using Medline and Psych Info and supplemented by correspondence with relevant institutions and authorities in the field. The review identifies potential specific outcome measurement tools. These tools are evaluated using the scientific criteria of validity and reliability, responsiveness to change, and appropriateness of each tool's format for use in routine clinical practice.

RESULTS: Three broad categories of outcome are identified: population outcomes, specific outcome and performance indicators. Nineteen specific outcome measurement tools are short-listed and compared in detail. No single tool is suitable for use as a comprehensive outcome measurement tool in routine clinical practice.

CONCLUSION: A combination of some of the tools short-listed will cover all the necessary outcome items. However, the increase in assessment time will reduce clinical usefulness. Further research is needed to modify or created appropriate outcome measurement tools for use in routine clinical practice.
J Public Health Med
0957-4832 (Print)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Cognitive/mental state
Emotional state
Functional status:
Social functioning
Overall quality of life:
Overall quality of life
Children (0-18)
Mental and behavioural disorders and related symptoms
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
2 - Interviews
6 - Clinical rating scales
ACPP - Association of Child Psychology and Psychiatry- Proposed core data set for child and adolescent psychology and psychiatry
Behaviour Screening Questionnaire
BPC - Behavior Problem Checklist
CAS - Child Assessment Schedule
CBCL - Child Behavior Checklist    | 
CGAS - Children's Global Assessment Scale
Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment
Children Quality of Life
Conners Parent Teacher Rating Scale-revised
DISC - Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (two forms: DISC-Y: youngster version; DISC-P: Parent version)
Harter Self- Esteem Questionnaire-Modified
HoNOSCA - Health of the National Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents
ISC - Interview Schedule for Children
Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia
Pre-school Behaviour Checklist
Pre-school Behaviour Questionnaire
RutterA2 Parent and Teacher Rating Scale
Rutter A Questionnaire
Short Conners Parent Teacher Rating Scale