COSMIN database

A systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures used to assess Achilles tendon rupture management: what's being used and should we be using it?

Kearney, R. S., Achten, J., Lamb, S. E., Plant, C., and Costa, M. L.
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is no consensus regarding the optimal management for patients following an Achilles tendon rupture. To allow comparisons between different treatments, a universally accepted outcome measure is required. However, there are currently a range of these reported within the literature.

OBJECTIVE: To recommend the most suitable patient-reported outcome measure for the assessment of patients following an Achilles tendon rupture, based on a systematic review of first what is currently used and second evidence of validity.

METHODS: The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and AMED were searched up to September 2010. Predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to identify what outcome measures are reported in the literature. Aspects of validity were defined and a checklist used to determine which aspects have been evaluated.

RESULTS: Twenty-one outcome measures in 50 research papers were identified. The most commonly used was the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hind-foot score. Of the 21 outcome measures, only 4 cited independent validation data. Of these four, only the 'Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score' reported evidence to support multiple facets of validity, as defined by a predetermined criteria checklist.

CONCLUSIONS: The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score was identified as the only outcome measure which has demonstrated multiple facets of validity for use in this patient group. However, even this tool has limitations. Researchers should be aware of the limitations of the available outcome measurement tools and check on their validity before use in clinical research
Br J Sports Med
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Physical state
Functional status:
Physical functioning
Adults (18-65)
Seniors (65+)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
Achilles Tendon Evaluation Score
AOFAS - American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Score
ATRS - Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score
EQ-5D - EuroQoL-5 Dimensions   
Hannover Achilles Score
Holz Score
Leppilahti Score
Modified Leppilahti Score
Modified Mandelbaum and Pavanini Scale
Modified Rupp Score
Modified Thermann Score
Objective and Subjective Outcome Score
OMAS -Olerud and Molander Ankle Score
Postoperative Rating Scale
Rupp Achilles Tendon Score
SF-12 - 12-item Short Form Health Survey [alias: RAND-12]
SF-36 - 36-item Short Form Health Survey [alias: RAND-36][alias: Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-36]]    |  | also see:
Thermann Score