COSMIN database

A systematic review of arm activity measures for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

Klingels, K., Jaspers, E., Van de Winckel, A., De Cock, P., Molenaers, G., and Feys, H.
OBJECTIVE: To identify psychometrically sound and clinically feasible assessments of arm activities in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy for implementation in research and clinical practice.

DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and reference lists of relevant articles were searched.

REVIEW METHODS: A systematic search was performed based on the following inclusion criteria: (1) evaluative tools at the activity level according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health; (2) previously used in studies including children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy aged 2-18 years; (3) at least one aspect of reliability and validity in children with cerebral palsy should be established. Descriptive information, psychometric properties and clinical utility were reviewed.

RESULTS: Eighteen assessments were identified of which 11 met the inclusion criteria: eight functional tests and three questionnaires. Five functional tests were condition-specific, three were generic. All functional tests measure different aspects of activity, including unimanual capacity and performance during bimanual tasks. The questionnaires obtain information about the child's abilities at home or school. The reliability and validity have been established, though further use in clinical trials is necessary to determine the responsiveness.

CONCLUSIONS: To obtain a complete view of what the child can do and what the child actually does, we advise a capacity-based test (Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function), a performance-based test (Assisting Hand Assessment) and a questionnaire (Abilhand-Kids). This will allow outcome differentiation and treatment guidance for the arm in children with cerebral palsy.
Clin Rehabil
1477-0873 (Electronic)
Publication year:
Functional status:
Physical functioning
Children (0-18)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the nervous system
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
2 - Interviews
4 - Performance-based tests
5 - Videos
6 - Clinical rating scales
7 - Observations
AHA - Assisting Hand Assessment
BOTMP - Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency
JTHFT - Jebsen Taylor Hand Function Test [alias: JTT]   
MUUL - Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function
PDMS - Peabody Developmental Motor Scales
PEDI - Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory   
PMAL-R - Revised Pediatric Motor Activity Log
QUEST - Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test
SHUEE - Shriners Hospital Upper Extremity Evaluation
VOAA - Video Observations Aarts and Aarts