Pain coping tools for children and young adults with a neurodevelopmental disability: A systematic review of measurement properties
Smith, N. L., Smith, M. G., Gibson, N., Imms, C., Thornton, A. L., and Harvey, A. R.
AIM: To systematically identify and evaluate the measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and observer-reported outcome measures (parent proxy report) of pain coping tools that have been used with children and young adults (aged 0-24 years) with a neurodevelopmental disability.
METHOD: A two-stage search using MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PsycInfo was conducted. Search 1 in August 2021 identified pain coping tools used in neurodevelopmental disability and search 2 in September 2021 located additional studies evaluating the measurement properties of these tools. Methodological quality was assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidelines (PROSPERO protocol registration no. CRD42021273031).
RESULTS: Sixteen studies identified seven pain coping tools, all PROMs and observer-reported outcome measures (parent proxy report) versions. The measurement properties of the seven tools were appraised in 44 studies. No tool had high-quality evidence for any measurement property or evidence for all nine measurement properties as outlined by COSMIN. Only one tool had content validity for individuals with neurodevelopmental disability: the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life tool.
INTERPRETATION: Pain coping assessment tools with self-report and parent proxy versions are available; however, measurement invariance has not been tested in young adults with a neurodevelopmental disability. This is an area for future research.