HIV-Specific Reported Outcome Measures: Systematic Review of Psychometric Properties
Wang, Z., Zhu, Y., Duan, X., Kang, H., and Qu, B.
BACKGROUND: The management of people living with HIV and AIDS is multidimensional and complex. Using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) has been increasingly recognized to be the key factor for providing patient-centered health care to meet the lifelong needs of people living with HIV and AIDS from diagnosis to death. However, there is currently no consensus on a PROM recommended for health care providers and researchers to assess health outcomes in people living with HIV and AIDS.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize and categorize the available validated HIV-specific PROMs in adults living with HIV and AIDS and to assess these PROMs using the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) methodology.
METHODS: This systematic review followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. A literature search of 3 recommended databases (PubMed, Embase, and PsychINFO) was conducted on January 15, 2021. Studies were included if they assessed any psychometric property of HIV-specific PROMs in adults living with HIV and AIDS and met the eligibility criteria. The PROMs were assessed for 9 psychometric properties, evaluated in each included study following the COSMIN methodology by assessing the following: the methodological quality assessed using the COSMIN risk of bias checklist; overall rating of results; level of evidence assessed using the modified Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach; and level of recommendation.
RESULTS: A total of 88 PROMs classified into 8 categories, assessing the psychometric properties of PROMs for adults living with HIV and AIDS, were identified in 152 studies including 79,213 people living with HIV and AIDS. The psychometric properties of most included PROMs were rated with insufficient evidence. The PROMs that received class A recommendation were the Poz Quality of Life, HIV Symptom Index or Symptoms Distress Module of the Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group, and People Living with HIV Resilience Scale. In addition, because of a lack of evidence, recommendations regarding use could not be made for most of the remaining assessed PROMs (received class B recommendation).
CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review recommends 3 PROMs to assess health outcomes in adults living with HIV and AIDS. However, all these PROMs have some shortcomings. In addition, most of the included PROMs do not have sufficient evidence for assessing their psychometric properties and require a more comprehensive validation of the psychometric properties in the future to provide more scientific evidence. Thus, our findings may provide a reference for the selection of high-quality HIV-specific PROMs by health care providers and researchers for clinical practice and research.