COSMIN database

Sleep evaluation scales and questionaries: a review

Lomeli, H. A., Perez-Olmos, I., Talero-Gutierrez, C., Moreno, C. B., Gonzalez-Reyes, R., Palacios, L., de la Pena, F., and Munoz-Delgado, J.
INTRODUCTION: Whenever a new scale is created or translated from another language, it must be validated, establishing its reliability for the new population where it will be used. Sleep quality concept is a construct that can be evaluated using self-report scales. Resulting elements vary depending on the individuals surveyed. This type of evaluation is mainly subjective and includes quantitative aspects such as sleep duration, number of awakenings, latency time, and qualitative aspects such as rest sensation, mood and oneiric content (Valencia, 2000). In the present study we made a critical review of the sleep scales designed for child, adolescent and adult populations that have been validated and the difficulties they might present.

METHODOLOGY: Between September 2005 and May 2006 a bibliographical search was made within Pubmed, Ovid and the data base of the periodical and book library of the Ramon de la Fuente Muniz National Institute of Psychiatry, using and combining the following key words: sleep, sleep questionnaire, sleep scale, sleep inventory, adolescent, adolescent sleep scale. The most relevant papers to our study were selected. The search was limited to Spanish and English articles, although there was no year or geographical origin limit. Articles that did not include clinimetrical data where excluded.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on our bibliographical search and our discussion, we suggested the design and validation of a Spanish scale to evaluate adolescent population which avoids a time interval between awakening and the answering of the instrument in order to decrease recall bias.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr
1139-9287 (Print)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Emotional state
Physical state
Functional status:
Cognitive/mental functioning
Physical functioning
Adults (18-65)
Children (0-18)
Seniors (65+)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the nervous system
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
3 - Diaries
6 - Clinical rating scales
7 - Observations
9 - Laboratory tests
AIS - Athens Insomnia Scale
BISQ - Brief Infant Sleep Questionary
BNSQ - Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire
DBAS-10 - Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale-10 items
DBAS - Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale
ESS - Epworth Sleepiness Scale
JSPS - Jenkins Sleep Problems Scale
KSD - Karolinska Sleepiness Diary
LSEQ - Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire
Post-Sleep Inventory
PSQI - Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
PSQ - Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire
PSQ-SEI - Post-Sleep Questionnaire-Sleep Effects Index
SAQLI - Calgary Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index
School Sleep Habits Survey (modified)
SDI - Sleep Disorders Inventory
SDQ - Sleep Disorders Questionnaire
SDQ - Sleep Disturbance Questionnaire
SDSC - Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children
SEQ - Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire
SII - Sleep Impairment Index
Sleep-EVAL system
Sleep survey for adolescents
SMHSQ - St. Mary’s Hospital Sleep Questionnaire
SQ - Sleep Questionnaire
SSS - Stanford Sleepiness Scale
STQ - Sleep Timing Questionnaire
Subjective assessment scale of sleep and dreams
SWAI - Sleep-Wake Activity Inventory
VAS-QoS - Visual Analogue Scale-Quality of Sleep
VSH Sleep Scale - Verran and Snyder-Halpern Sleep Scale
WSQ - Wisconsin Sleep Questionnaire