COSMIN database

Tactile assessment in children with cerebral palsy: a clinimetric review

Auld, M. L., Boyd, R. N., Moseley, G. L., and Johnston, L. M.
This review evaluates the clinimetric properties of tactile assessments for children with cerebral palsy. Assessment of registration was reported using Semmes Weinstein Monofilaments (SWMs) or exteroception. Assessment of two-point discrimination was reported using the Disk-Criminator(R) or paperclip methods; Single point localization and double simultaneous were reported from the Neurosensory Motor Developmental Assessment (NSMDA); graphaesthesia was reported from the Sensory Integration and Praxis Test (SIPT); and stereognosis was assessed using Manual Form Perception from the SIPT and the Klingels method (Klingels, K. et al. (2010). Upper limb motor and sensory impairments in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Can they be measured reliably? Disability and Rehabilitation, 32(5), 409-416) and the Cooper method (Cooper, J., Majnemer, A., Rosenblatt, B., & Birnbaum, R. (1995). The determination of sensory deficits in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Journal of Child Neurology, 10, 300-309). The SIPT and NSMDA demonstrated stronger content validity. Inter-rater reliability was excellent for SIPT (ICC = 0.99) and exteroception (k = 0.88). Test-retest reliability was excellent for exteroception (k = 0.89) and stereognosis (ICC = 0.86; 100%), moderate for SIPT (r = 0.69-0.74) and poor for SWM (k = 0.22). Together these assessments measure tactile registration and spatial perception. Temporal and textural tests are to be developed for comprehensive tactile examination.
Phys Occup Ther Pediatr
1541-3144 (Electronic)
Publication year:
Biological and physiological variables:
Biological and physiological variables
Children (0-18)
Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities and related symptoms
Diseases of and symptoms related to the nervous system
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
4 - Performance-based tests
7 - Observations
2PD - Two Point Discrimination
Cooper method
Klingels method
NSMDA - Neurological Sensory Motor Developmental Assessment
SIPT - Sensory Integration and Praxis Test
SWM - Semmes Weinstein Monofilaments