COSMIN database

Health-related quality of life measurement in type 2 diabetes

Luscombe, F. A.
Type 2 diabetes has significant adverse effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A vast array of questionnaires has been used to measure HRQoL in diabetes patients, contributing to the difficulty of selecting instruments for future research. To systematically evaluate these measures, a literature search was undertaken to identify relevant publications. This paper summarizes the generic, diabetes-specific, and psychological measures utilized to evaluate persons with type 2 diabetes, and highlights related findings. Generic instruments demonstrate significant reductions in health status compared with other chronic disease populations and healthy controls. Multiple diabetes-specific measures are available to assess domains affected by the disease, including symptoms, worries, self-care, locus of control, functional ability, social support, and sexual functioning. Psychological measures show that type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with adverse psychological effects, particularly depression. Since much of this research has been cross-sectional in nature, little is known about responsiveness of many of the HRQoL measures to clinical change and treatment effects. It is clear that HRQoL results are influenced by multiple patient and disease factors, particularly age, gender, and the presence and severity of disease complications and comorbid conditions. These factors should be considered in the design and analysis of HRQoL evaluations in type 2 diabetes patients. Selection of instruments for future research will therefore require careful evaluation of study design and objectives, population characteristics, the presence of disease-related factors, and outcomes of interest.
Value Health
1524-4733 (Electronic)
Publication year:
General health perceptions / HRQoL:
Health-related quality of life
Adults (18-65)
Children (0-18)
Seniors (65+)
Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and related symptoms
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
6 - Clinical rating scales
ABS - Affect Balance Scale    | also see:
ATT39 Scale
BDI - Beck Depression Inventory (versions: mBDI)   
CES-D - Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (versions: CES-D-R; CES-D-8; CES-D-10; CES-D-11; CES-D-15; CES-D-20; CES-D-Children; CES-D-SF; CES-D m)   
COOP/WONCA charts - COOP/WONCA Functional Healh assessment charts   
D-39 - Diabetes-39
DCP - Diabetes Care Profile (Diabetes Educational Profile (originally))
D-FISQ - Diabetes Fear of Injecting and Self-testing Questionnaire
DHP - Diabetes Health Profile (versions: DHP-3D; DHP-5D)
DHS - Diabetes Health Status Questionnaire
DIMS - Diabetes Impact Measurement Scales
DQLCTQ - Diabetes Quality of Life Clinical Trial Questionnaire (versions: DQLCTQ-R)
DQOL - Diabetes Quality of Life (versions: DQOL-R; Chinese DQOL-SV)
DSC - Diabetes Symptom Checklist (versions: DSC-Type 2 - Type 2 diabetes; DSC-R - DSC-revised)
DTSQ - Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire
EQ-5D - EuroQoL-5 Dimensions   
HADS - Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale   
NHP - Nottingham Health Profile   
PAID - Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (versions: PAID-1; PAID-5; PAID-11; PAID-SF)
Perceived Control Scale
POMS - Profile of Mood States (versions: POMS-11; POMS-14; POMS-37; POMS-65; Brief POMS; POMS-Adolescent; POMS-sf; revised POMS)
QWB - Quality of Well-Being Scale
SCL-90-R - Symptom Checklist 90-Revised
SDS - Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (also: ZSDS ; versions: mZSDS)
SF-20 - MOS short-form general health survey 20 item
SF-36 - 36-item Short Form Health Survey [alias: RAND-36][alias: Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-36]]    |  | also see:
SIP - Sickness Impact Profile (versions: SIP-8; SIP-68; SIP-136; SIP-SV; UKSIP)   
TDAQ - Diabetes Activities Questionnaire
WBQ - Well-Being Questionnaire [alias: W-BQ] (versions: WBQ-12; WBQ-22; WBQ-28)
WHOQOL - World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (versions: WHOQOL-26)