COSMIN database

A comprehensive review of questionnaires to evaluate chronic pain- related disability

Millard, R. W., Beattie, P. F., and Jones, R. H.
This article reviews standard disability questionnaires available for measuring pain-related disability and considers the psychometric evidence to support their use. These questionnaires can be a desirable method for documenting the status and progress of patients with chronic pain. Disability questionnaires were identified from searches of MEDLINE and PsychLIT from 1980 to 1995 and from bibliography reviews. Questionnaires were classified according to whether they evaluated disability in terms of health status, functional assessment, pain, or a specific condition (e.g., back pain, rheumatologic disorders, cancer, other). They were reviewed for conventional psychometric attributes of reliability and validity, in addition to feasibility. Most studies provide some evidence of construct validity for questionnaires, but there are widely differing content domains, suggesting that consensual definitions of pain-related disability have not been developed. It is difficult to establish criterion validity without defined standards of disability to calibrate questionnaire sensitivity. Normative data and information about feasibility are usually lacking. Close evaluation of psychometric attributes will help in obtaining more accurate and useful measurements of pain-related disability
Critical Reviews in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Physical state
Functional status:
Physical functioning
Role functioning
Social functioning
General health perceptions / HRQoL:
Health-related quality of life
Overall quality of life:
Overall quality of life
Adults (18-65)
Seniors (65+)
Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
6 - Clinical rating scales
AIMS - Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (versions; sAIMS; shortened AIMS)
BPI - Brief Pain Inventory
CBSQ - Curtin Back Screening Questionnaire
Chronic Disability Index
CIPI - Chronic Illness Problem Inventory
Clinical Outcome Questionnaire
COOP/WONCA charts - COOP/WONCA Functional Healh assessment charts   
DHP - DUKE Health Profile
DPQ - Dallas Pain Questionnaire
EORTC QLQ-C30 - European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaires Core-30 item (versions: EORTC QLQ-C24)   
FACT - Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy
FASQ - Functional Assessment Screening Questionnaire
FII - Functional Interference Index
FIQ - Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire   
FSI - Functional Status Index   
FSQ - Functional Status Questionnaire
Functional Living Index
Functional Rating Scale
HAQ - Health Assessment Questionnaire (versions:MHAQ - Modified HAQ; HAQ-II)   
JAFAR - Juvenile Arthritis Functional Assessment Report
JVB - Jan van Breemen Functional Scale
Low-Back Rating
MHI (Q) - McMaster Health Index (Questionnaire)
Million Scale
MPI - Multidimensional Pain Inventory   
NHP - Nottingham Health Profile   
ODI - Oswestry Disability Index (versions: ODI 2.0; ODI AAOS/MODEMS; chir ODI - chiropractor ODI)   
PDI - Pain Disability Index   
QBPDS - Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale   
RMDQ - Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire    
SCAS - Self-Care Assessment Schedule
SF-36 - 36-item Short Form Health Survey [alias: RAND-36][alias: Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-36]]    |  | also see:
SIP - Sickness Impact Profile   
WOMAC - Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (versions: Individualized WOMAC; WOMAC-Likert Scale; WOMACsf; WOMAC-12)