COSMIN database

Measurement of fatigue in systemic lupus erythematosus: A systematic review

Avina-Zubieta, J. A., Alarcon, G. S., Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A., Fischer-Betz, R., Schneider, M., Gall, V., Liang, M. H., Schur, P., Illei, G., Mikdashi, J., Petri, M., Phillips, C., Pouchot, J., and Clair, W.
Objective. To systematically review fatigue instruments used in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to seek consensus on which instruments should be recommended for future studies and which data on comorbid conditions should be reported when evaluating fatigue in patients with SLE. Methods. We used data from Medline and EMBase databases (from January 1970 to June 2006), clinical experts, and bibliographies. Data were extracted independently by 4 authors and reviewed by a working group and larger expert panel to produce a recommendation. Instruments were examined for construct validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change. Correlations between fatigue and some components of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-:36), disease activity, and comorbidities were reviewed. Results. We identified 34 studies that used 15 fatigue instruments in patients with SLE. The Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) was used in 56% of the studies. The Systemic Lupus Activity Measure was significantly correlated with fatigue, but the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index was not. Fatigue was also correlated with pain, poor quality of sleep, depression, and with each subscale of the SF-36. Conclusion. The working group and expert panel recommend the 9-item FSS for evaluating fatigue in SLE patients. Responsiveness to change of fatigue instruments has not been well established in SLE and needs further study. The panel suggested that an important improvement or response could be a 15% decrease in the FSS. The effect of several important confounding factors of fatigue such as sleep disorders, depression, fibromyalgia, and anemia needs to be collected and reported. (copyright) 2007, American College of Rheumatology
Arthritis Care and Research
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Physical state
Functional status:
Cognitive/mental functioning
Physical functioning
Social functioning
Adults (18-65)
Seniors (65+)
Codes for special purposes
Diseases of and symptoms related to the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
CFS - Chalder Fatigue Scale [alias: FQ - Fatigue Questionnaire][alias: FRS - Fatigue Rating Scale]
FAI / FSI - Fatigue Assessment Instrument (FAI) = Fatigue Severity Inventory (FSI)
Fatigue rating
FSES - Fatigue Self-Efficacy Scale
FSS - Fatigue Severity Scale (versions: FSS-7 - 7-item version and FSS-5 - 5-item version)   
MAC-FS - Robert B. Brigham Multipurpose Arthritis Center-Fatigue Scale
MAF - Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue
MFI - Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (versions: MFI-20)   
PFS - Piper Fatigue Scale (versions: PFS-revised; PFS-12)
SBPI - Sjögren’s-Based Psychometric Instrument
SF20+1 - Short Form of the Medical Outcome Study questionnaire plus 1 item for fatigue
SF-36-V - 36-item Short Form Health Survey-Vitality subscale
Single question for fatigue
VAS-F - Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue [alias: LFS - Lee Fatigue Scale]