Comfort and its measurement--a literature review
- Pearson, E. J.
- PURPOSE: This review aims to identify measures suitable for evaluation of physical comfort in a range of clinical settings or specialised areas.
METHOD: A review of literature included articles that evaluated an intervention, position, equipment or surface for comfort or discomfort. Electronic databases, hand searches and internet sources were used.
RESULTS: In addition to several theoretical papers on comfort, 29 studies were identified that used 'comfort' or 'discomfort' as outcomes. There was a lack of consistency in measurement of comfort and researchers used a wide range of different scales and tools. Objective and subjective measures are described. The impact of symptoms, environmental variables and emotional factors was generally not considered. Two instruments evaluating subjective comfort or discomfort were identified that have been carefully developed and psychometrically tested. Both have potential for use in clinical practice and research - one developed for wheelchair seating and one for wearable computers. Suggestions for clinical evaluation of comfort based on the research and theoretical papers regarding measurement scales are made.
CONCLUSION: Further work on development and validation of comfort assessment tools for other applications is needed.
- Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol
- 1748-3115 (Electronic)
- Publication year:
- Adults (18-65)
- Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period and related symptoms
Certain infections and parasitic diseases and related symptoms
Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities and related symptoms
Diseases of and symptoms related to the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism
Diseases of and symptoms related to the circulatory system
Diseases of and symptoms related to the digestive system
Diseases of and symptoms related to the ear and mastoid process
Diseases of and symptoms related to the eye and adnexa
Diseases of and symptoms related to the genitourinary system
Diseases of and symptoms related to the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
Diseases of and symptoms related to the nervous system
Diseases of and symptoms related to the respiratory system
Diseases of and symptoms related to the skin and subcutaneous tissue
Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and related symptoms
External causes of morbidity and mortality
Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes
Mental and behavioural disorders and related symptoms
Neoplasms and related symptoms
Pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium and related symptom
Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified
- PRO / non-PRO:
- Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
- Type of measurement instrument:
- 1 - Questionnaires
3 - Diaries
6 - Clinical rating scales
8 - Imaging tests
9 - Laboratory tests