COSMIN database

Standard scales for measurement of functional outcome for cervical pain or dysfunction: a systematic review

Pietrobon, R., Coeytaux, R. R., Carey, T. S., Richardson, W. J., and DeVellis, R. F.
STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review was conducted.

OBJECTIVE: To identify, evaluate, and compare standard scales for assessing neck pain or dysfunction.

SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The degree of a patient's neck pain or dysfunction can be evaluated using standardized scales at the time of a clinical encounter or during the performance of clinical research protocols. The choice of a scale with the most appropriate characteristics, however, is always a challenge to clinicians and researchers.

METHODS: Articles concerning scales for functional evaluation of neck pain or dysfunction were identified by computer searching of MEDLINE (January 1966 to June 1999) and CINAHL (1985 to 2000), citation tracking using the Citation Index, hand searching of relevant journals, and correspondence with experts.

RESULTS: Five standard scales were found. Three scales were remarkably similar in terms of structure and psychometric properties: the Neck Disability Index, the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale, and the Northwick Park Scale. However, only the first instrument has been revalidated in different study populations. The Neck Pain and Disability Scale provides a visual template for collection of information, but its usefulness is limited if the questionnaire must be read to the patient. The Patient-Specific Functional Scale is very sensitive to functional changes in individual patients, but comparisons between patients are virtually impossible.

CONCLUSIONS: The five scales identified in this study have similar characteristics. The Neck Disability Index, however, has been revalidated more times for evaluation of patient groups. For individual patient follow-up evaluation, the Patient-Specific Functional Scale has high sensitivity to change, and thus represents a good choice for clinical use. The final choice should be tailored according to the target population and the purpose of the evaluation.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976)
1528-1159 (Electronic)
Publication year:
Biological and physiological variables:
Biological and physiological variables
Functional status:
Physical functioning
Adults (18-65)
Seniors (65+)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
6 - Clinical rating scales
CNFDS - Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale
NDI - Neck Disability Index    
NPDS - Neck Pain and Disability Scale   
NPQ - Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire [alias: Northwick Questionnaire]
Patient-Specific Functional Scale Self-Reports With Neck Dysfunction