COSMIN database

A systematic review of depression and anxiety measures used with individuals with spinal cord injury

Sakakibara, B. M., Miller, W. C., Orenczuk, S. G., Wolfe, D. L., and Team, SCIRE Res
Study design: A systematic review. Objectives: To review and assess the psychometric properties of depression and anxiety instruments used with populations with spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: Vancouver, Canada. Methods: Electronic databases were searched for papers reporting psychometric properties of depression and anxiety instruments. Pre-established criteria were used to assess the psychometric properties. Results: Thirteen papers reporting on the psychometric properties of 13 depression and anxiety instruments are used in this review, and include BDI, BSI, CESD-20, CESD-10, DASS-21, GHQ-28, HADS, Ilfeld-PSI, MEDS, PHQ-9, PHQ-9-Short, SCL-90-R, and the Zung SRS. Reliability data are available for 10 instruments, and validity results are available for 12 instruments. Evidence spanned the spectrum of evaluation criteria varying from poor to excellent. Responsiveness data are generally lacking. Conclusion: Given that the reliability and validity findings range for the most part from adequate to excellent, and the large amount of work to develop cutoff scores specific for populations with SCI, at present there is no need to develop SCI-specific instruments. As psychometric properties of one measure do not clearly stand out, it is difficult to recommend the use of one over another. Overall, more psychometric data are needed, and if the instruments are to be used to evaluate treatment outcomes or change over time, responsiveness data are also required. Administering the instruments in tandem with each other and with clinical diagnostic interviews would provide valuable information, as would comparison of results to normative data specific to individuals with SCI.
<Go to ISI>://WOS:000272278500002
Spinal Cord
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Cognitive/mental state
Adults (18-65)
Seniors (65+)
Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
BDI - Beck Depression Inventory   
BSI - Brief Symptom Inventory
CES-D-10 - Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-10 item form
CES-D - Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale   
DASS-21 - Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 items
GHQ-28 - General Health Questionnaire 28 items
HADS - Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale   
Ilfeld-PSI - Ilfeld Psychiatric Symptom Inventory
MEDS - Medical Emotional Distress Scale
PHQ-9 - Patient Health Questionnaire-9
PHQ-9-short - Patient Health Questionnaire-9-short
SCL-90-R - Symptom Checklist 90-Revised
SDS - Zung Self-rating Depression Scale