Pain assessment in nonverbal older adults with advanced dementia
- TOPIC: Pain assessment is a particular challenge among individuals with advanced dementia who lack the ability to formulate and express their experience of discomfort.
PURPOSE: Awareness of pain scales and methods specifically designed for use with nonverbal individuals with dementia is critical to expanded use and testing in clinical settings.
SOURCES: Computerized literature searches using four databases revealed the five observational scales and two caregiver reports methods reviewed.
CONCLUSIONS: A small number of valid, reliable, and sensitive scales are available for use by nurses and allied health personnel. Each has strengths and limitations and all would benefit from additional testing.
- Perspect Psychiatr Care
- 0031-5990 (Print)
- Publication year:
- Symptom status:
- Physical state
- Seniors (65+)
- Diseases of and symptoms related to the nervous system
Mental and behavioural disorders and related symptoms
- PRO / non-PRO:
- Non-patient Reported Outcome
- Type of measurement instrument:
- 1 - Questionnaires
6 - Clinical rating scales
7 - Observations
- CNPI - Checklist for Nonverbal Pain Indicators
DS-DAT - Discomfort Scale –Dementia of Alzheimer Type
Observed Pain Behavior Scale
PADE - Pain Assessment for the Dementing Elderly
PAINAD - Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia Scale (also available in Spanish version; PAINAD-Sp)