COSMIN database

Systematic review: do we need a new gastro-oesophageal reflux disease questionnaire?

Stanghellini, V., Armstrong, D., Monnikes, H., and Bardhan, K. D.
BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is highly prevalent in Western countries. Because the majority of patients do not present with endoscopic abnormalities, the assessment of the symptom severity and quality of life, and their response to treatment, has become increasingly important. Self-assessed symptom questionnaires are now key instruments in clinical trials.

AIM: To evaluate the validity of available GERD measurement tools.

METHODS: An ideal GERD symptom assessment instrument, suitable as a primary end-point for clinical trials, should possess the following characteristics: (i) be sensitive in patients with GERD; (ii) cover the frequency and intensity of typical and atypical GERD symptoms; (iii) be multidimensional (cover all symptom dimensions); (iv) have proven psychometric properties (validity, reliability and responsiveness); (v) be practical and economical; (vi) be self-assessed; (vii) use 'word pictures' which are easy to understand for patients; (viii) respond rapidly to changes (responsiveness over short time intervals); (ix) be used daily to assess changes during and after therapy; and (x) be valid in different languages for international use.

RESULTS: A literature review revealed five scales that met some of the above characteristics, but did not fulfil all criteria.

CONCLUSION: There is a need for a new evaluative tool for the assessment of GERD symptoms and their response to therapy
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Physical state
General health perceptions / HRQoL:
Health-related quality of life
Adults (18-65)
Children (0-18)
Seniors (65+)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the digestive system
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
2 - Interviews
3 - Diaries
6 - Clinical rating scales
BDQ - Modified Bowel Disease Questionnaire
DHSI - Digestive Health Status Instrument
DIGEST Questionnaire - Domestic/International Gastroenterology Surveillance Study Questionnaire
GERD-HRQL - Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease Health-related Quality of Life
GERD Q - GERD Questionnaire - Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease Questionnaire
GERD Score - Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease Score
GERD Screener - Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease Screener
GERQ - Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux Questionnaire
GIQLI - Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index
GRACI - Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease Activity Index
GSAS - Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease Symptom Assessment Scale
GSRS - Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale
HBQOL - Heartburn Quality of Life Questionnaire
I-GERQ - Infant Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Questionnaire
Oesophageal Symptom Questionnaire
PGWBI - Psychological General Well-Being index [alias: PGWB] (versions: PGWBI-S - short form)
QOLRAD - Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia
RDQ - Reflux Disease Diagnostic Questionnaire
SF-36 - 36-item Short Form Health Survey [alias: RAND-36][alias: Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-36]]    |  | also see:
Standardized Oesophageal Symptom Questionnaire
UESS - Ulcer Oesophagitis Subjective Symptoms Scale