COSMIN database

Assessing violence exposure and trauma symptoms in young children: a critical review of measures

Stover, C. S. and Berkowitz, S.
The acknowledgment of the existence of age-specific posttraumatic stress symptoms in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers points to the urgent need for standardized assessment tools for violence exposure and trauma symptoms in young children. The authors review the assessment measures currently available for the evaluation of potentially traumatic events (PTE) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in children less than 6 years old. Each measure is described and its strengths and weaknesses discussed in a developmental context, while also considering the specific difficulties inherent to the assessment of young children. Recommendations for further test development are given.
J Trauma Stress
0894-9867 (Print)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Emotional state
Physical state
Children (0-18)
Mental and behavioural disorders and related symptoms
Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
2 - Interviews
6 - Clinical rating scales
7 - Observations
CBCL - Child Behavior Checklist (versions: CBCL-ADHD)    | 
Modified semistructured interview
PAPA = Preschool Aged Psychiatric Assessment
PTSD-PAC - Posttraumatic Stress Disorders in Preschool Aged Children
PTSD semistructured interview and observation - Posttraumatic Stress Disorder semistructured interview and observation
PT-SIC - Posttraumatic Symptoms Inventory for Children
TESI - Traumatic Events Screening Inventory (versions: TESI-PR - Parent Report; TESIPRR)
TSCC - Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (versions: TSCYC - Young Children; TSCYC-SF)
UCLA-PTSD-RI - University of California, Los Angeles, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder–Reaction Index
VEX-PR = Violence Exposure Scale–Parent Report
VEX-PV - Violence Exposure Scale–Preschool Version