COSMIN database

Impairment measures in rheumatic disorders for rehabilitation medicine and allied health care: a systematic review

Swinkels, R. A., Bouter, L. M., Oostendorp, R. A., and van den Ende, C. H.
UNLABELLED: The objective of this study is to provide a critical overview of available instruments to assess impairments in patients with rheumatic disorders, and to recommend reliable and valid instruments for use in allied health care and rehabilitation medicine. A computer-aided literature search (1982-2004) in several databases was performed to identify studies focusing on the clinimetric properties of instruments designed to assess impairments in function in patients with rheumatic disorders. Data on intra-rater reliability, inter-rater reliability and construct validity were extracted in a standardized way. Explicit criteria were applied for reliability and validity.

RESULTS: The search identified a total of 49 instruments to assess impairments in functions in patients with rheumatic disorders; 19 met the criteria for reliability, 22 met the criteria for validity, and 11 out of the 49 appeared to meet the criteria for both reliability and validity. In summary, evidence of both reliability and validity was only found for 11 out of 49 instruments for the assessment of impairments in patients with rheumatic disorders. Only a limited number of the identified instruments for the assessment of impairments is both reliable and valid. Allied health care professionals should be cautious in the selection of measurement instruments to assess their patients.
Rheumatol Int
0172-8172 (Print)
Publication year:
Functional status:
Physical functioning
Adults (18-65)
Seniors (65+)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
4 - Performance-based tests
6 - Clinical rating scales
7 - Observations
AHI - Arthritis Helplessness Index
AI - Articular Index
AIMS2 - Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2   
AIMS - Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (Also short AIMS and shortened AIMS)
ASES - Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (versions: ASES-8; ASES-AS - Ankylosing Spondylitis)
AUSCAN - Australian/Canadian Hand Osteoarthritis Index
BASDAI - Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index
BASMI - Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index
BDI - Beck Depression Inventory   
Chest - Chest Expansion
DoL - Dolorimeter
EDI - Electric Digital Inclinometer
EI - Enthesis Index
EPM - Escola Paulista de Medicina Range of Motion Scale   
FFI - Foot Function Index
Goniometry / Goniometer   
Grip strength
J-MAP - Joint-Specific Multidimensional Assessment of Pain
MKI - Modified Kapandji Index
MobSpine - Mobility assessment spine in ankylosing spondylitis
MPQ - McGill Pain Questionnaire    
MS-D - Morning Stiffness, duration
NRS - Numeric Rating Scale   
Observed Pain Behavior Scale
RAPS - Rheumatoid Arthritis Pain Scale
RPS - Regional Pain Scale
SAJ - Self Assessment Joint Count
SF-36 - 36-item Short Form Health Survey [alias: RAND-36][alias: Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-36]]    |  | also see:
Shob - Shobert’s test
Sphygmomanometer (handheld dynamometer)
Spondylometer (Dunham)
SSAI - Spielberger State-Anxiety Inventory
STAI - State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
Stest - Stiffness test
VAS-S - Visual Analogue Scale Stiffness
VAS - Visual Analogue Scale