COSMIN database

Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in paediatric ophthalmology: a systematic review

Tadic, V., Hogan, A., Sobti, N., Knowles, R. L., and Rahi, J. S.
AIM: To identify patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) specifically developed and used to assess the impact of ophthalmic disorders in children and to systematically assess their quality as a basis for recommendations about their use in clinical and research settings.

METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and AMED, supplemented by a grey literature search. Papers reporting development and validation of questionnaire instruments for assessing patient-reported outcomes of an ophthalmic disorder in patients aged 2-18 years were included. Quality was assessed by examining the purpose and psychometric properties of the instruments. Strengths and limitations were summarised with recommendations regarding use.

RESULTS: Search identified 17 instruments. Of these, 11 were condition-specific and six were intended for a broader population of children and young people with visual impairment regardless of the ophthalmic condition. Three were developed for use in a specific trial and two are still in development.

CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric ophthalmology PROM development and application is a developing field and new instruments are needed. There is scope for improvement in this area through (a) clarity of definitions of the underlying constructs intended to be measured at the onset of development of new instruments, (b) application of child-centred approaches and (c) adherence to extant guidance and best practice in questionnaire instrument development.
Br J Ophthalmol
1468-2079 (Electronic)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Physical state
Functional status:
Cognitive/mental functioning
Physical functioning
Social functioning
General health perceptions / HRQoL:
Health-related quality of life
Overall quality of life:
Overall quality of life
Children (0-18)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the eye and adnexa
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
ATI - Amblyopia Treatment Index
CAT-QoL - Children’s Amblyopia Treatment Quality of Life Questionnaire
CISS-V15 - Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey
CVAQC - Cardiff Visual Ability Questionnaire for Children
CVFQ - Children’s Visual Function Questionnaire
EIAQ - Emotional Impact of Amblyopia Questionnaire
EYE-Q - Effects of Youngsters’ Eyesight on Quality of Life
IVI-C - Impact of Visual Impairment for Children
IXTQ - Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire
LVP FVQ-II - Low Vision Prasad Functional Vision Questionnaire II
LVP FVQ - Low Vision Prasad Functional Vision Questionnaire
NLDO - NasoLacrimal Duct Obstruction questionnaire score
PIQ - Psychological Impact Questionnaire
PPQ - Perceived Psychosocial Questionnaire
PREP - Pediatric Refractive Error Profile
QUICK - Quality of Life in Children with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis
VQoL_CYP - Vision-related Quality of Life of Children and Young People