COSMIN database

Elbow-specific clinical rating systems: extent of established validity, reliability, and responsiveness

The, B., Reininga, I. H., El Moumni, M., and Eygendaal, D.
BACKGROUND: The modern standard of evaluating treatment results includes the use of rating systems. Elbow-specific rating systems are frequently used in studies aiming at elbow-specific pathology. However, proper validation studies seem to be relatively sparse. In addition, these scoring systems might not always be used for appropriate populations of interest. Both of these issues might give rise to invalid conclusions being reported in the literature. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which the available elbow-specific outcome measurement tools have been validated and the quality of the validation itself. We also aimed to provide characteristics of the populations used for validation of these scales to enable clinicians to use them appropriately.

METHODS: A literature search identified 17 studies of 12 different elbow-specific scoring systems. These were assessed for validity, reliability, and responsiveness characteristics. The quality of these assessments was rated according to the Consensus Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist criteria, a standardized and validated tool developed specifically for this purpose.

RESULTS: Currently, the only elbow-specific rating system that is validated using high-quality methodology is the Oxford Elbow Score, a patient-administered outcome measure tool that has been validated on heterogeneous study populations.

CONCLUSION: Other rating systems still have to be proven in the future to be as good as the Oxford Elbow Score for clinical or research purposes. Additional validation studies are needed.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg
1532-6500 (Electronic)
Publication year:
Adults (18-65)
Children (0-18)
Seniors (65+)
Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
4 - Performance-based tests
6 - Clinical rating scales
7 - Observations