COSMIN database

Measurement of non-restorative sleep in insomnia: A review of the literature

Vernon, M. K., Dugar, A., Revicki, D., Treglia, M., and Buysse, D.
OBJECTIVE: Non-restorative sleep (NRS) is a core symptom of insomnia, typically defined as a subjective feeling of being unrefreshed upon awakening. NRS symptoms have been less consistently studied than other symptoms of insomnia, and there is no consensus regarding measurement of NRS. Given its subjective nature, patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are important for evaluating NRS symptom severity and treatment-related changes. The objective of this literature review was to identify PROs used in insomnia populations that purport to measure NRS, and to evaluate their psychometric characteristics.

METHODS: A comprehensive review of PRO instruments used in insomnia was conducted; instruments were reviewed for NRS content by two independent reviewers; a total of 26 instruments identified to contain NRS content were retained for further review.

RESULTS: Of the 26 instruments reviewed, 23 contained at least one item evaluating subjective nighttime aspects of NRS; 17 contained at least one item evaluating daytime aspects of NRS. Only the Sleep Assessment Questionnaire contained a specific NRS domain score. However, little published evidence was available regarding measurement properties of the NRS domain in insomnia populations.

CONCLUSIONS: There is currently no reliable and well-validated PRO instrument available for specifically evaluating NRS symptom severity and response to interventions in insomnia populations. Reliable and valid measurement tools are needed to measure the symptom of NRS in insomnia.
Sleep Med Rev
1532-2955 (Electronic)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Physical state
Adults (18-65)
Seniors (65+)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the nervous system
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
2 - Interviews
3 - Diaries
6 - Clinical rating scales