COSMIN database

Outcome instruments to measure frailty: a systematic review

de Vries, N. M., Staal, J. B., van Ravensberg, C. D., Hobbelen, J. S., Olde Rikkert, M. G., and Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M. W.
Frailty is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare professionals. The level of frailty depends on several interrelated factors and can change over time while different interventions seem to be able to influence the level of frailty. Therefore, an outcome instrument to measure frailty with sound clinimetric properties is needed. A systematic review on evaluative measures of frailty was performed in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Cinahl and Cochrane. The results show numerous instruments that measure the level of frailty. This article gives a clear overview of the content of these frailty instruments and describes their clinimetric properties. Frailty instruments, however, are often developed as prognostic instruments and have also been validated as such. The clinimetric properties of these instruments as evaluative outcome measures are unclear.
Ageing Res Rev
1872-9649 (Electronic)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Cognitive/mental state
Emotional state
Physical state
Functional status:
Physical functioning
Social functioning
Seniors (65+)
Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period and related symptoms
Certain infections and parasitic diseases and related symptoms
Codes for special purposes
Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities and related symptoms
Diseases of and symptoms related to the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism
Diseases of and symptoms related to the circulatory system
Diseases of and symptoms related to the digestive system
Diseases of and symptoms related to the ear and mastoid process
Diseases of and symptoms related to the eye and adnexa
Diseases of and symptoms related to the genitourinary system
Diseases of and symptoms related to the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
Diseases of and symptoms related to the nervous system
Diseases of and symptoms related to the respiratory system
Diseases of and symptoms related to the skin and subcutaneous tissue
Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and related symptoms
External causes of morbidity and mortality
Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes
Mental and behavioural disorders and related symptoms
Neoplasms and related symptoms
Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
2 - Interviews
4 - Performance-based tests
6 - Clinical rating scales
1994 Frailty Measure Strawbridge
CGIC-PF - Clinical Global Impression of Change in Physical Frailty
Chin A Paw Instrument
FI-CGA - Frailty Index-Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment
FIM - Functional Independence Measure (Also modified version exists)
Frail Elderly Functional Assessment Questionnaire
Frailty Index (accumulation of deficits)
Frailty Phenotype [alias: Phenotype of Frailty]
Gealey Instrument
GFE - Geriatric Functional Evaluation
GFI - Groninger Frailty Indicator
Grip strength
Guilley Frailty Instrument
Puts Instrument
Ravaglia Instrument
Rothman Instrument
Self-report Screening Instrument
SOF - Study of Osteoporotic Fractures
VES - Vulnerable Elders Survey
Winograd Instrument