COSMIN database

Lessons learned searching for a HRQoL instrument to assess the results of treatment in persons with lumbar disorders

Zanoli, G., Stromqvist, B., Padua, R., and Romanini, E.
Choosing the appropriate outcomes to measure in everyday practice is a typical clinical decision. As does any other clinical decision, it requires general knowledge of the matter, such as the how to choose between conservative or surgical treatment, understanding of the specific problem for the specific patient, and synthetic skills to make a decision. Imagine a spine specialist who is now faced with this problem: an evidence-based approach should be used to find the best evidence in the published literature or in other sources of retrievable information, to assist in the choice between different ways of measuring outcomes. Useful information for this decision can be found elsewhere in this focus issue.(2) In particular, Dr. Kopec provides a detailed review of most relevant methodologic issues.(7) The purpose of this article is to report on a systematic literature and Internet search that could help identify possible sources of information and discuss some aspects to take into account in the choice of a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument
Spine (Phila Pa 1976)
0362-2436 (Print)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Emotional state
Physical state
Functional status:
Cognitive/mental functioning
Physical functioning
General health perceptions / HRQoL:
Health-related quality of life
Overall quality of life:
Overall quality of life
Adults (18-65)
Seniors (65+)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
6 - Clinical rating scales
ABPS / ALBPS - Aberdeen (Low) Back Pain Scale    |  | also see:
AHI - Arthritis Helplessness Index
API - Activity Pattern Indicators
BDI - Beck Depression Inventory (versions: mBDI)   
COOP/WONCA charts - COOP/WONCA Functional Healh assessment charts   
COS - Clinical Overall Score
CPGQ - Chronic pain Grading Questionnaire
CSQ - Coping Strategies Questionnaire
DHP - DUKE Health Profile
DISQ - Demand-Induced Strain Compensation Questionnaire
DPQ - Dallas Pain Questionnaire
DRP - Disease Repercussion Profile
EQ-5D - EuroQoL-5 Dimensions   
FRS - Family Resource Scale
GHQ - General Health Questionnaire (versions: original = GHQ-60; GHQ-12; GHQ-20; GHQ-28; GHQW-30; GHQ-36)
Iowa LB Rating Scale - Iowa Low Back Rating Scale
JVB - Jan van Breemen Functional Scale
JVB Pain Scale - Jan van Breemen Pain Scale
LBOS - Low Back Outcome Scale
LBP Disability Index
LBP Rating Scale
Macnab’s criteria
Million Scale
MMPI - Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (versions: MMPI-2; MMPI-Adolescent)
MPQ - McGill Pain Questionnaire (versions MPQ-SF)    
NASS - North American Spine Society Questionnaire (versions:NASS-lumbar ; NASS-cervical; NASS-AAOS)
NHP - Nottingham Health Profile   
ODI - Oswestry Disability Index (versions: ODI 2.0; ODI AAOS/MODEMS; chir ODI - chiropractor ODI)   
OHS - Oxford Hip Score   
Pain Intensity Rating
PARS - Personal Adjustment and Role Skills Scale
PGI - Patient General Index
PPI - Present Pain Intensity
PSFS - Patient-Specific Functional Scale   
PS - Prolo Scale [alias: Prolo Score] [alias: Prolo Economic Functional Rating Scale]
PSQ -Patient Specific Questionnaire
QBPDS - Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale   
RADL - Resumption of Activities of Daily Living Scale
RMDQ - Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire    
SAMI - Sleep Associated Monitoring Index
SF-36 - 36-item Short Form Health Survey [alias: RAND-36][alias: Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-36]]    |  | also see:
SIP - Sickness Impact Profile   
Stauffer’s criteria
VAS - Visual Analogue Scale (versions: vertical; horizontal)   
WOMAC - Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (versions: Individualized WOMAC; WOMAC-Likert Scale; WOMACsf; WOMAC-12)