COSMIN database

The measures to evaluate constipation: a review article

Izumi, K.
The aim of this study was to review current constipation assessment scales and clarify (a) the nature of extant measurements and (b) the criteria contained in the measures. A review of relevant literature from inception to 2011 was extracted from PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane, and MEDLINE databases by searching for the following key words: constipation, scale, measurement, questionnaire, and assessment. Eight scales were reviewed. The scales under review measured constipation from a subjective viewpoint. All measurement criteria included in 8 of the scales were arranged into 51 items and divided into 5 categories. Categories used to measure the severity of constipation were defecation difficulties, abdominal symptoms, emotional effects of constipation, self-treatment strategies, and individual characteristics. Original and suitable scales for the measurement of the severity of constipation based on the review were the Patient-Assessment of Constipation Symptoms scale and the Constipation Assessment Scale. The Patient-Assessment of Constipation Symptoms scale and the Constipation Assessment Scale are reliable, valid, original, and suitable scales to measure the severity of constipation for subjects.
Gastroenterol Nurs
1538-9766 (Electronic)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Physical state
Adults (18-65)
Children (0-18)
Seniors (65+)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the digestive system
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
2 - Interviews
CAS - Constipation Assessment Scale
CCQ - Chinese Constipation Questionnaire
Constipation Severity Instrument
CQ - Constipation Questionnaire
CSS - Constipation Scoring System
GQ - Garrigues Questionnaire
KESS - Knowles Eccersley Scott Symptom Score
PAC-SYM - Patient Assessment of Constipation-Symptom [Alias: PAC-QOL - Patient Assessment of Constipation-Symptoms and Quality of Life]