COSMIN database

Neck and back pain specific outcome assessment questionnaires in the Spanish language: a systematic literature review

Murphy, D. R. and Lopez, M.
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Accurate measurement of functional improvement in clinical practice is becoming increasingly recognized as essential in demonstrating whether patients are deriving meaningful benefit from care. Several simple questionnaires have been developed for this purpose. The majority of these have been developed in English. In North America, there is a growing need for clinical tools, including outcome assessment tools that are available in the Spanish language.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding spine-specific outcome assessment questionnaires that are available in Spanish and to examine the evidence on their clinical utility.

STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review.

METHODS: The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and MANTIS databases were searched for any studies on the topic of outcome assessment questionnaires in the Spanish language. Relevant articles were reviewed, and the data on reliability, validity, time to completion, and any other properties of the questionnaire was extracted.

RESULTS: The search strategy identified 287 articles, of which 10 were deemed relevant. With regard to neck pain, data were found regarding Spanish translations of the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Core Outcome Measure for neck pain. With regard to low back pain, data were found regarding Spanish translations of the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index (ODI), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ), and the North American Spine Society-American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons questionnaire.

CONCLUSIONS: Several reliable and valid outcome assessment questionnaires are available in the Spanish language. All were originally developed in English. It appears from the data reviewed that the most useful instruments are the NDI for neck pain patients and the ODI and RMQ for low back pain patients. The current trend is for the development of culturally adapted versions of these questionnaires that are specific to a particular country or region.
Spine J
1878-1632 (Electronic)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Physical state
Functional status:
Physical functioning
Adults (18-65)
Children (0-18)
Seniors (65+)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
COM - Core Outcome Measure
NDI - Neck Disability Index    
NPQ - Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire [alias: Northwick Questionnaire]
ODI - Oswestry Disability Index (versions: ODI 2.0; ODI AAOS/MODEMS; chir ODI - chiropractor ODI)   
RMDQ - Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire    
SBST - STarT Back Screening Tool