COSMIN database

Clinical assessment instruments validated for nursing practice in the Italian context: a systematic review of the literature

Palese, A., Tameni, A., Ambrosi, E., Albanese, S., Barausse, M., Benazzi, B., De Togni, S., Doro, R., Eccher, C., Fattori, M., Franchini, P., Girlanda, M., Gobbetti, D., Guarino, L., Lazzeri, R., Moreale, R., Ricci, N., Venturini, M., Villa, G., Zonzini, E., and Saiani, L.
AIMS: With the aim to identify the instruments validated for Italian nursing practice, a systematic review of the literature was undertaken.

RESULTS: A total of 101 instruments emerged. The majority (89; 88.1%) were developed in other countries; the remaining (14; 13.9%) were developed and validated in the Italian context. The instruments were developed to measure patient's problems (63/101; 62.4%), outcomes (27/101; 26.7%), risks (4/101; 4%) and others issues (7/101; 6.9%). The majority of participants involved in the validation processes were younger adults (49; 48.5%), older adults (40; 39.5%), children (4; 4%), adolescents (3; 3%), and children/adolescents (1; 1%). The instruments were structured primarily in the form of questionnaires (61; 60.4%), as a grid for direct observation (27; 26.7%) or in other forms (12; 11.9%). Among the 101 instruments emerged, there were 1 to 7 validation measures documented with on average 3.2 (95% CI 2.86-3.54) for each instrument.

CONCLUSIONS: Developing validation studies giving priority to those instruments widely adopted in the clinical nursing practice is recommended.
DOI: 10.4415/ANN_14_01_11
Ann Ist Super Sanita
2384-8553 (Electronic)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Cognitive/mental state
Emotional state
Physical state
Functional status:
Cognitive/mental functioning
Physical functioning
Overall quality of life:
Overall quality of life
Adults (18-65)
Children (0-18)
Seniors (65+)
Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period and related symptoms
Certain infections and parasitic diseases and related symptoms
Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities and related symptoms
Diseases of and symptoms related to the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism
Diseases of and symptoms related to the circulatory system
Diseases of and symptoms related to the digestive system
Diseases of and symptoms related to the ear and mastoid process
Diseases of and symptoms related to the eye and adnexa
Diseases of and symptoms related to the genitourinary system
Diseases of and symptoms related to the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
Diseases of and symptoms related to the nervous system
Diseases of and symptoms related to the respiratory system
Diseases of and symptoms related to the skin and subcutaneous tissue
Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and related symptoms
External causes of morbidity and mortality
Factors influencing health status and contact with health services
Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes
Mental and behavioural disorders and related symptoms
Neoplasms and related symptoms
Pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium and related symptom
Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
2 - Interviews
6 - Clinical rating scales
7 - Observations
8HA - Average 8h Pain Intensity
ABC - Acuteness Burst Constancy Scale
ADAS - Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale
ADR RISK SCORE - Score per la Valutazione del Rischio di Reazioni Avverse ai Farmaci
AIADL - Advanced Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale
AMT - Abbreviated Mental Test
APS - Abbey Pain Scale
APS-POQ - American Pain Society-Patient Outcome Questionnaire
BANS-S - Bedford Alzheimer Nursing Severity Scale
BBS - Berg Balance Scale   
BPI - Brief Pain Inventory
CAMCOG - Cambridge Cognitive Examination
CASC - Comprehensive Assessment of Satisfaction with Care
CCPOT - Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool
CDS - Care Dependency Scale   
CES-D - Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale   
CIRS - Cumulative Illness Rating Scale   
CMAI - Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory
COSM-R - Comunicazione Medico-Paziente nella Sclerosi Multipla revisionata
CPG - Chronic Pain Grade
CSS - Computerized Skin Score
DAD - Disability Assessment for Dementia
DEQ - Disordered Eating Questionnaire
DMI - Dependence Medical Index
DrHy-Q - Drug Hypersensitivity Quality of Life Questionnaire
DRS-MDAS - Delirium Rating Scale-Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale
DS-DAT - Discomfort Scale –Dementia of Alzheimer Type
EORTC IN-PATSAT 32 - European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Patient Satisfaction 32 items
EORTC QLQ-H&N35 - European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaires Head & Neck 35
EPDS - Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale   
ESAS - Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (versions: ESAS-PD - ESAS-Parkinson's Disease)
EUROPEP - European Project on Patient Evaluation of General Practice Care
FES-I - Falls Efficacy Scale International   
FFM - Fear of Falling Measure (University of Illinois at Chicago)
FFQ - Food Frequency Questionnaires
FIM - Functional Independence Measure (Also modified version exists)
FIVE-ITEM GDS - Five-Item Geriatric Depression Scale
GAI - Geriatric anxiety inventory
GDS - Geriatric Depression Scale   
GIC - Geriatric Index of Comorbidity
HFRM II - Hendrich Fall Risk Model II
Hi-Ob scale - Clinical Historical-Objective Scale of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
IES - Impact of Event Scale
ISAR - Identification of Seniors at Risk
JAFS - Juvenile Arthritis Functionality Scale
KDQOL-SF - Kidney Disease Quality of Life-short form
MAC (Also: Mini-MAC) - (Mini-) Mental Adjustment to Cancer
m-MPI - Modified-Multidimensional Prognostic Index
MMSE - Mini-Mental State Examination   
MNA-SF - Modified Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form
MOAS - Modified Overt Aggression Scale
MOODS-SR - Self Report Instruments
MQOL - McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire [alias: McGill QoL] (also: MQOL-CSF - MQOL-Cardiff Short form)
MTSOSD-59R - Modified Transplant Symptom Occurrence and Distress Scale 59-Revised
MTSOSD - Modified Transplant Symptom Occurrence and Symptom Distress Scale
NOPPAIN - Non-Communicative Patient’s Pain Assessment Instrument
NOSIE - Nurse’s Observation Scale for In-Patient Evaluation
NPDS - Neck Pain and Disability Scale   
NPSI - Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory
NPS - Neuropathic Pain Scale
NSNS - Newcastle Satisfaction with Nursing Scale
OHIP - Oral Health Impact Profile (versions: OHIP-49 - 49 items; OHIP-14; OHIP-20; OHIP-G - German version; OHIP-G5 and OHIP-G21)
OSS - Oxford Shoulder Score   
PAINAD - Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia Scale
PAP SCORE - Palliative Prognostic Score
PCS - Postural Changes Scale
PedsQL - Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory
PITT - Pavia Instrumented Tinetti Test
PPRI - Patient-Physician Relationship Index
PRQL - Paediatric Rheumatology Quality of Life Scale
PSDRS - Poststroke Depression Rating Scale
PSS - Patient Satisfaction Scale
PTSS - Pain Treatment Satisfaction Scale
QLDS - Quality of Life in Depression Scale
Questionario di Moynihan sulle Conoscenze Alimentari
Questionario per la Valutazione della Soddisfazione per l’ADI
Questionario sulla Soddisfazione del Paziente Ospedalizzato
Questionario sulla Soddisfazione Ospedaliera
RAS - Rorschach Alexithymia Scale
RBEB - Ronchi Brief Evaluation Battery
Royal Free Interview for Religious and Spiritual Beliefs
SADBD - Structured Assessment of Depression In Brain-Damaged Individuals
Scala di Conley
Scala di Soddisfazione del Paziente nei Confronti della Qualità delle Cure
Scala di Soddisfazione del Paziente nei Confronti della Qualità delle Cure in degenza riabilitativa
SCARED-R - Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders–Revised
SCARED - Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders
SCAS - Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale
Scheda di Accertamento della Dipendenza
SHAPS - Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale
Short FES-I - Short Falls Efficacy Scale International   
SIB - Severe Impairment Battery
SIS - Stroke Impact Scale
SLS - Scleroderma Logopedic Scale
SNQ-10 - Satisfaction with Nursing
TAS-20 - Toronto Alexithymia Scale
Test di Daniels-Test di Deglutizione Dell’acqua
TICS - Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status
Triple Q Questionnaire
USSQ - Ureteral Stent Symptoms Questionnaire
VALGRAF - Valutazione Grafica del Paziente Anziano Ospedalizzato
WHO-DTSQ - World Health Organization-Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire
WHO-WBQ - World Health Organization – Well-Being Questionnaire
Wisconsin BPS - Wisconsin Brief Pain Scale/Questionnaire