COSMIN database

Instruments for measuring mental health recovery: a systematic review

Sklar, M., Groessl, E. J., O'Connell, M., Davidson, L., and Aarons, G. A.
Persons in recovery, providers, and policymakers alike are advocating for recovery-oriented mental health care, with the promotion of recovery becoming a prominent feature of mental health policy in the United States and internationally. One step toward creating a recovery-oriented system of care is to use recovery-oriented outcome measures. Numerous instruments have been developed to assess progress towards mental health recovery. This review identifies instruments of mental health recovery and evaluates the appropriateness of their use including their psychometric properties, ease of administration, and service-user involvement in their development. A literature search using the Medline and Psych-INFO databases was conducted, identifying 21 instruments for potential inclusion in this review, of which thirteen met inclusion criteria. Results suggest only three instruments (25%) have had their psychometric properties assessed in three or more unique samples of participants. Ease of administration varied between instruments, and for the majority of instruments, development included service user involvement. This review updates and expands previous reviews of instruments to assess mental health recovery. As mental health care continues to transform to a recovery-oriented model of service delivery, this review may facilitate selection of appropriate assessments of mental health recovery for systems to use in evaluating and improving the care they provide.
Clin Psychol Rev
1873-7811 (Electronic)
Publication year:
Functional status:
Cognitive/mental functioning
Role functioning
Social functioning
Overall quality of life:
Overall quality of life
Adults (18-65)
Seniors (65+)
Mental and behavioural disorders and related symptoms
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
2 - Interviews
6 - Clinical rating scales
CROS 3.0 - Consumer Recovery Outcomes System 3.0
IMRS - Illness management and recovery scale
MARS - Maryland Assessment of Recovery in People with Serious Mental Illness
MHRM - Mental Health Recovery Measure
MHRS - Mental Health Recovery Star
MTR - Milestones to Recovery Scale
OMHCOS - Ohio Mental Health Consumer Outcomes System [alias: OOS - Ohio Outcomes System]
POP - Peer Outcomes Protocol
RAS - Recovery Assessment Scale
RPI - Recovery Process Inventory
SISR - Self-Identified Stage of Recovery
Stages of Recovery Scale
STORI - Stages of Recovery Instrument