COSMIN database

Assessment of people with cognitive impairment and hip fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Smith, T., Hameed, Y., Cross, J., Sahota, O., and Fox, C.
This study systematically assesses the literature pertaining to the diagnostic test accuracy of assessment instruments to evaluate patients following hip fracture surgery who present with cognitive impairment. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Studies assessing the reliability, validity, sensitivity or specificity of assessment tools for patients following hip fracture who were cognitively impaired were included. An assessment of published (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, AMED, Cochrane library, PEDro) and unpublished/trial registry (OpenGrey, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Current Controlled Trials, the UK National Research Register Archive) databases were undertaken. Methodological quality of the literature was assessed using the QUADAS-2 appraisal tool. Nine studies including 690 participants, with a mean age of 82.1 years were included. The literature demonstrated a high risk of bias for study methodology, but low risk of bias for applicability. Two assessment domains were recognized: pain and delirium. For pain, the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) and DOLOPLUS-2 tools possessed strong inter-rater reliability and internal consistency, with the FACS demonstrating concurrent validity with other pain scales. For delirium, the Delirium Rating Scale-Revisited-98 (DRS-R-98) demonstrated high inter-rater reliability and sensitivity and specificity, with the NEECHAM Confusion Scale possessing high internal consistency. To conclude, there is a paucity of literature assessing the reliability, validity and diagnostic test accuracy of instruments to assess people with cognitive impairment following hip fracture surgery. Based on the current available data, delirium may be best assessed using the NEECHAM Confusion Scale or DRS-R-98. Pain is most accurately evaluated using the FACS.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
1872-6976 (Electronic)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Cognitive/mental state
Physical state
Functional status:
Cognitive/mental functioning
Adults (18-65)
Seniors (65+)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
Diseases of and symptoms related to the nervous system
Factors influencing health status and contact with health services
Mental and behavioural disorders and related symptoms
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
2 - Interviews
6 - Clinical rating scales
7 - Observations
APS - Abbey Pain Scale
CAM - Confusion Assessment Method
CGI-S - Clinical Global Impression-Scale
CNPI - Checklist for Nonverbal Pain Indicators
CTD - Cognitive Test for Delirium
DOS - Delirium Observation Screening Scale
DRS - Delirium Rating Scale
DRS-R-98 - Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98
DSM-IV criteria
FACS - Facial Action Coding System
IQCODE-sf - Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly short form
MMSE - Mini-Mental State Examination   
MPS - Mahoney Pain Scale
NEECHAM Confusion Scale   
NOPPAIN - Non-Communicative Patient’s Pain Assessment Instrument
PACSLAC - pain assessment checklist for seniors with limited ability to communicate   
PAINAD - Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia Scale