COSMIN database

Measurement of stiffness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in low disease activity or remission: a systematic review

van Tuyl, L. H., Lems, W. F., and Boers, M.
BACKGROUND: Recent qualitative research has shown that stiffness is an important symptom for patients to identify remission. However, it is unclear how to measure stiffness in low disease activity. This systematic review aims to summarise the existing literature on validity of patient reported outcomes to measure stiffness in RA low disease activity states, to aid the choice for a measurement instrument.

METHODS: An extensive pubmed-search was undertaken, identifying measurement instruments for patient perceived stiffness used in low disease activity. Eligible studies reported on 1) stiffness as an outcome in relation to other core set measures, 2) development of a patient reported tool to measure stiffness, or 3) comparison of two different tools to measure aspects of stiffness, all in low disease activity.

RESULTS: Of 788 titles, only two studies report on validity of stiffness measures within low disease activity. Morning stiffness (MS) is reported in 44 to 80% of patients in low disease activity. A difference of 40 to 60 minutes in duration until maximum improvement is observed between active and inactive patients. Severity of MS might discriminate better between high and low disease activity compared to measurement of duration of MS.

CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient data on measurement of stiffness in the spectrum of low disease activity or remission.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
1471-2474 (Electronic)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Physical state
Adults (18-65)
Seniors (65+)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
MS-D - Morning Stiffness, duration
NRS (morning) stiffness
VAS-S - Visual Analogue Scale Stiffness