COSMIN database

Measuring patient-reported outcomes in advanced gastric cancer

Xu, J., Evans, T. J., Coon, C., Copley-Merriman, K., and Su, Y.
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC), one of the most common cancers in the world, is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and associated with a poor prognosis. Quality of life and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are important considerations when treating GC patients. The aim of this study was to identify existing PRO instruments that would be appropriate for use in GC trials.

METHODS: Data were obtained from a systematic literature review and interviews with clinical experts. A literature search was conducted using OVID (EMBASE and MEDLINE) and yielded 1,008 abstracts; 92 assessed PROs in an advanced GC.

RESULTS: Key symptoms and functional impacts identified through the literature and expert input included abdominal pain or pain at the site of distant metastases, dysphagia and other symptoms related to eating, and digestive symptoms. The liver and lungs were the most frequent locations of metastases, leading to dyspnea, abdominal fullness, and jaundice. Symptoms related to changes in bowel habits appeared to be more frequent and pronounced in Asian patients, possibly due to the higher prevalence of GC in the body of the stomach in this population. The five most commonly used PRO instruments were identified, but their validity in advanced-stage GC patients remains unclear.

CONCLUSIONS: The symptoms and functional impacts identified here should be confirmed with robust input from advanced-stage GC patients. Optimal measurement of PROs in GC should account for patient burden and possible differences between Asian and non-Asian patients.
1754-6605 (Print)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Cognitive/mental state
Emotional state
Physical state
Functional status:
Physical functioning
General health perceptions / HRQoL:
Health-related quality of life
Adults (18-65)
Children (0-18)
Seniors (65+)
Neoplasms and related symptoms
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
2 - Interviews
BPI - Brief Pain Inventory
Depression Status Inventory
EORTC QLQ-C30 - European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaires Core-30 item (ALSO shortened version)   
EORTC QLQ-OES18 - European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire in patients with oesophageal cancer 18 items
EORTC QLQ-OES24 - European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire for patients with oesophageal cancer 24 items
EORTC QLQ-STO22 - European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire in patients with gastric cancer 22 item
EQ-5D - EuroQoL-5 Dimensions   
ESAS - Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (versions: ESAS-PD - ESAS-Parkinson's Disease)
European Study for Pancreatic Cancer-QOL Questionnaire
FACT-An - Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia
FACT-F - Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue
FACT-Oesophageal - Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)-Oesophageal
HADS - Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale   
HUI-3 - Health Utilities Index-Mark 3
LASA - Linear Analogue Self-Assessment Questionnaire
MDASI-GI - MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Gastrointestinal
Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire
MQOL - McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire [alias: McGill QoL] (also: MQOL-CSF - MQOL-Cardiff Short form)
POMS - Profile of Mood States
Positive and Negative Affect Schedules
QOL-Anticancer Drugs - Quality of Life-Anticancer Drugs
SF-36 - 36-item Short Form Health Survey [alias: RAND-36][alias: Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-36]]    |  | also see:
STAI - State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
Time Without Symptom and Toxicity