COSMIN database

Systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures for functional performance in the lower limb

Ashford, S., Brown, S., and Turner-Stokes, L.
OBJECTIVE: To identify psychometrically evaluated patient-reported outcome measures reflective of 'real-life' function (active and passive) for application following focal rehabilitation interventions in the lower limb after stroke or brain injury.

DATA SOURCES: A literature search conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, National Health Service National Research Register, MRC Clinical Trials directory, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Google Scholar and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

STUDY SELECTION: Interventional study designs using patient-reported outcome measures for outcome evaluation meeting the review objective.

DATA EXTRACTION: Evaluation of the psychometric properties used the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) process, by two independent reviewers reaching consensus, with adjudication by a third reviewer.

DATA SYNTHESIS: One-hundred and thirteen studies were identified following initial review of the abstracts, yielding 12 outcome measures. Eight measures were identified, which were relevant to real life functional performance. These were the Brain Injury Community Rehabilitation Outcome, Climbing Stairs Questionnaire, Human Activity Profile, Lower Extremity Functional Scale, Nottingham Extended ADL Index, Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI), Sickness Impact Profile, Stroke Impact Scale.

CONCLUSIONS: All measures addressed active function, with none evaluating passive function. The RMI met most psychometric criteria, but may have a ceiling effect for high functioning patients.
J Rehabil Med
1651-2081 (Electronic)
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Cognitive/mental state
Emotional state
Physical state
Functional status:
Physical functioning
Role functioning
Social functioning
Adults (18-65)
Seniors (65+)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
Diseases of and symptoms related to the nervous system
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
2 - Interviews
BICRO-39 - Brain Injury Community Rehabilitation Outcome Scales (39-items)
Climbing Stairs Questionnaire
HAP - Human Activity Profile
LEFS - Lower Extremity Function Scale
NEADL - Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale   
RMI - Rivermead Mobility Index   
SIP - Sickness Impact Profile   
SIS - Stroke Impact Scale