COSMIN database

Manual function outcome measures in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD): Systematic review

Bieber, E., Smits-Engelsman, B. C., Sgandurra, G., Cioni, G., Feys, H., Guzzetta, A., and Klingels, K.
This study systematically reviewed the clinical and psychometric properties of manual function outcome measures for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) aged 3-18 years. Three electronic databases were searched to identify manual function tools at the ICF-CY body function, activity and participation level used in children with DCD. Study selection and data extraction was conducted by two blind assessors according to the CanChild Outcome Measures Rating Form. Nineteen clinical tests (seven fine hand use tools and 12 handwriting measures), three naturalistic observations and six questionnaires were identified. The fine-motor subdomain of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 and the Functional Strength Measurement, with adequate reliability and validity properties, might be useful for manual function capacity assessment. The Systematic Detection of Writing Problems (SOS) and the Detailed Assessment of Speed of Handwriting (DASH) could be adopted for handwriting assessment, respectively from 6 and 9 years old. Naturalistic observations and questionnaires, whose psychometric properties have been investigated into limited extent, offer an assessment of the daily performances. This review shows that a combination of different tools is needed for a comprehensive assessment of manual function in children with DCD including the three levels of the ICF-CY. Further investigation of psychometric properties of those tools in children with DCD is warranted. Tests validated in other populations should be explored for their applicability for assessing manual function in children with DCD.
Res Dev Disabil
Publication year:
Functional status:
Cognitive/mental functioning
Physical functioning
Children (0-18)
Mental and behavioural disorders and related symptoms
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
6 - Clinical rating scales
7 - Observations
ACHS - Assessment of Children’s Hand Skills
Alphabet task
BHK - Beknopte beoordelingsmethode voor kinderhandschriften (Concise evaluation scale for children’s handwriting)
BOT2 - Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2
ChAS-P/T - Children Activity Scale–Parents/Teachers
CHES-M - Children’s Handwriting Evaluation Scale-Manuscript
CHSQ - Children’ Hand Skill Ability Questionnaire
DASH - Detailed Assessment of Speed of Handwriting
DCDDaily - Daily Functioning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder
DCDDaily Q - Daily Functioning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire
DCDQ'07 - Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire’07
DRHP - Diagnosis and Remediation of Handwriting Problems
ETCH-C - Evaluation Tool of Children’s Handwriting-Cursive
ETCH-M - Evaluation Tool of Children’s Handwriting-Manuscript
FSM - Functional Strength Measurement
HHD - Hand-Held Dynamometer (Hand-held dynamometry with pulley force sensor)   
IHM - In-Hand Manipulation Test
LittleDCDQ - Little Developmental Coordination Disorders Questionnaire
MABC-2 - Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2   
MAND - McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development
MHA - Minnesota Handwriting Assessment
SHS - Shore Handwriting Screening for Early Handwriting Development
SOS-2 - Systematische Opsporing Schrijfproblemen (Systematic Detection of Writing Problems)
THS-R - Test of Handwriting Skills-Revised
TOHL - Test Of Legible Handwriting
ZNA - Zurich Neuromotor Assessment