COSMIN database

Self-Reported Outcome Measures of the Impact of Injury and Illness on Athlete Performance: A Systematic Review

Gallagher, J., Needleman, I., Ashley, P., Sanchez, R. G., and Lumsden, R.
BACKGROUND: Self-reported outcome measures of athlete health, wellbeing and performance add information to that obtained from clinical measures. However valid, universally accepted outcome measures are required.

OBJECTIVE: To determine which athlete-reported outcome measures of performance have been used to measure the impact of injury and illness on performance in sport and assess evidence to support their validity.

METHODS: The authors searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, SPORTDiscus with Full Text and Cochrane library to January 2016. Predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied and papers included if an outcome measure of performance, assessed in relation to illness, injury or a related intervention, was reported by an elite, adult, able-bodied athlete. A checklist was used to assess eligible outcome measures for aspects of validity. Reporting of this study was guided by PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews.

RESULTS: Twenty athlete-reported outcome measures in 21 papers were identified. Of these 20, only four cited validation. Of these four, three reported evidence to support validity in elite athlete groups as defined by the predetermined checklist. Fifteen patient-reported outcome measures were identified, of which four demonstrated validity in young athletic populations.

CONCLUSIONS: Most athlete-reported outcome measures of performance have been designed for individual studies with no reported assessment of validity. Despite some limitations, the Oslo Sports Trauma Centre overuse injury questionnaire demonstrates validity and potential utility to investigate the self-reported impact of pre-defined conditions on athletic performance across different sports.
Sports Med
Publication year:
Biological and physiological variables:
Biological and physiological variables
Symptom status:
Physical state
Functional status:
Physical functioning
Role functioning
Social functioning
Adults (18-65)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
2 - Interviews
7 - Observations