COSMIN database

Clinical outcome measures for monitoring physical function in pediatric obesity: An integrative review

Mahaffey, R., Morrison, S. C., Stephensen, D., and Drechsler, W. I.
OBJECTIVE: Measuring physical function in children with obesity is important to provide targets for clinical intervention to reduce impairments and increase participation in activities. The objective of this integrative review was to evaluate measurement properties of performance-based measures of physical function in children with overweight and obesity.

DESIGN AND METHODS: An integrative review of literature published in Cochrane Reviews, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, PLoS, Medline, and Scopus was conducted.

RESULTS: Twenty-eight studies were eligible and represented 66 performance-based measures of physical function. Assessments of repeatability and feasibility were not conducted in the majority of performance measures reported; only 6-min-timed walk (6MTW) was examined for test-retest repeatability. Measures of flexibility, strength, aerobic performance, anaerobic performance, coordination, and balance demonstrated construct validity and responsiveness; however, findings were inconsistent across all performance-based measures. Multi-item tests of physical function demonstrated acceptable construct validity and responsiveness; however, internal consistency was not determined.

CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate evidence that 6MTW is suitable for the measurement of physical function in children with obesity. However, evidence is low for the use of aerobic and anaerobic performance, muscle strength, Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency multi-item performance instruments and very low for flexibility, coordination, and balance tests. Based on this review, measurement of physical function using 6MTW is recommended.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
Publication year:
Functional status:
Physical functioning
Children (0-18)
Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and related symptoms
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
4 - Performance-based tests
6 - Clinical rating scales
10x 5 m shuttle run
180 degrees tandem pivot
1 kg ball throw
4 m x 5 m shuttle run
6MWT - 6 Minute Walk Test    |  | also see:
8/12 run
Arm hang (versions: Bent-arm hang)
Balance Test
Basketball throw
Bent-leg sit-up
Bilateral coordination
BOTMP - Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (versions: BOTMP-2; BOTMP-SF; BOTMP-LF; BOT; BOT2; BOT2-SF)
CB&MS - Community Balance and Mobility Scale [alias: CBMS - Community Balance and Mobility Scale]
Crouch and walk
Descending stairs
Distance Run Tests (versions: 0.25 mile; 0.5 mile; 1 mile; 550m; 1500m; zig-zag run)
Distance walk/run test (versions: 0.25 mile; 0.5 mile; 1.5 mile; 2 mile; 3 mile; 600m; 1000m; 3000m; 5000m; 600 yard)
Fitnessgram: Healthy Fitness Zones
Forward to backward walking
Hop Tests (versions: Hop Sequence; Figure-eight; Up-and-down; Side-to-side)
Horizontal jump
Jumping side-to-side
KTK - Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder   
Lateral dodging
Lateral foot scooting (L and R)
MABC - Movement Assessment Battery for Children   
Margaria step climbing test
Moving sideways
Multistage/Leger/shuttle run
One-leg standing balance (alias: 1 leg balance; One leg stand; Single leg stance; SLST - Single Leg Stance Test)   
PACER (Fitnessgram)
Partial sit-ups
Plate tapping
PPF Awards - President’s Physical Fitness Awards
Push-ups (versions: single partial; repeated partial; Isometric; wall push-up; modified)
Right-angle push-ups
Running speed/agility (BOT2)
Shoulder stretches
Sit-and-reach test (original/modifications)   
Small ball throw
Sprint Tests (Repeated; 5m; 10m, 15m; 20m; 40m; 60m)
Step-ups x 1 step (L and R)
Strength (BOT2)
STS - Sit-to-stand test (versions: 5timesSTS/FTSTS; 20sSTS; 30sSTS; 60sSTS; STST1 - 1 min STS; 2minSTS; 3minSTS; 10times STS)
Tandem walking
Trunk lifts
TUDS - Timed Up-and-Down Stairs
TUG - Timed Up and Go test   
Unilateral stance (L and R)
Upper limb coordination
Vertical jump
Walking backward
Walk, look, and carry (L and R)