COSMIN database

Clinical outcome measures for monitoring physical function in pediatric obesity: An integrative review

Mahaffey, R., Morrison, S. C., Stephensen, D., and Drechsler, W. I.
OBJECTIVE: Measuring physical function in children with obesity is important to provide targets for clinical intervention to reduce impairments and increase participation in activities. The objective of this integrative review was to evaluate measurement properties of performance-based measures of physical function in children with overweight and obesity.

DESIGN AND METHODS: An integrative review of literature published in Cochrane Reviews, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, PLoS, Medline, and Scopus was conducted.

RESULTS: Twenty-eight studies were eligible and represented 66 performance-based measures of physical function. Assessments of repeatability and feasibility were not conducted in the majority of performance measures reported; only 6-min-timed walk (6MTW) was examined for test-retest repeatability. Measures of flexibility, strength, aerobic performance, anaerobic performance, coordination, and balance demonstrated construct validity and responsiveness; however, findings were inconsistent across all performance-based measures. Multi-item tests of physical function demonstrated acceptable construct validity and responsiveness; however, internal consistency was not determined.

CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate evidence that 6MTW is suitable for the measurement of physical function in children with obesity. However, evidence is low for the use of aerobic and anaerobic performance, muscle strength, Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency multi-item performance instruments and very low for flexibility, coordination, and balance tests. Based on this review, measurement of physical function using 6MTW is recommended.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
Publication year:
Functional status:
Physical functioning
Children (0-18)
Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and related symptoms
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
4 - Performance-based tests
6 - Clinical rating scales
10x 5 m shuttle run
1/4-, 1/2-, or 1-mile run
180 degrees tandem pivot
1 kg ball throw
1-mile run
4 m x 5 m shuttle run
6-Minute RunTest
6MWT - 6-Minute Walk Test    |  | also see:
800/1,600 m run/walk
8/12 run
9-minutes run/walk
Balance Test
Basketball throw
Bent-arm hang
Bent-leg sit-up
Bilateral coordination
BOT2-SF - Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 Short Form
CB&MS - Community Balance and Mobility Scale [alias: CBMS - Community Balance and Mobility Scale]
Crouch and walk
Descending stairs
Fitnessgram: Healthy Fitness Zones
Forward to backward walking
Hopping forward (L and R)
Horizontal jump
Jumping side-to-side
KTK - Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder   
Lateral dodging
Lateral foot scooting (L and R)
MABC - Movement Assessment Battery for Children   
Margaria step climbing test
Moving sideways
Multistage/Leger/shuttle run
One-leg hop
One-leg standing balance [alias: 1 leg balance][alias: One-leg stand][alias: Single-leg stance][alias: SLST - Single Leg Stance Test]   
PACER (Fitnessgram)
Partial sit-ups
Plate tapping
PPF Awards - President’s Physical Fitness Awards
Right-angle push-ups
Running speed/agility (BOT2)
Shoulder stretches
Sit-and-reach test   
Sit-to-stand (test)
Small ball throw
Sprint 20 m
Sprint ~32 m
Sprint 40 m
Sprint 50 m
Step-ups x 1 step (L and R)
Strength (BOT2)
Tandem walking
Trunk lifts
TUDS - Timed Up-and-Down Stairs
TUG - Timed Up and Go test   
Unilateral stance (L and R)
Upper limb coordination
Vertical jump
Walking backward
Walk, look, and carry (L and R)