COSMIN database

Systematic Review of Health-Related Work Outcome Measures and Quality Criteria-Based Evaluations of Their Psychometric Properties

Mateen, B. A., Doogan, C., Hayward, K., Hourihan, S., Hurford, J., and Playford, E. D.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the state of psychometric validation in the health-related work outcome literature.

DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, PubMed Central, CINAHL, Embase (plus Embase Classic), and PsycINFO from inception to January 2016 using the following search terms: stroke, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, spinal cord injury, brain injury, musculoskeletal disease, work, absenteeism, presenteeism, occupation, employment, job, outcome measure, assessment, work capacity evaluation, scale, and questionnaire.

STUDY SELECTION: From the 22,676 retrieved abstracts, 597 outcome measures were identified. Inclusion was based on content analysis. There were 95 health-related work outcome measures retained; of these, 2 were treated as outliers and therefore are discussed separately. All 6 authors individually organized the 93 remaining scales based on their content.

DATA EXTRACTION: A follow-up search using the same sources, and time period, with the name of the outcome measures and the terms psychometric, reliability, validity, and responsiveness, identified 263 unique classical test theory psychometric property datasets for the 93 tools. An assessment criterion for psychometric properties was applied to each article, and where consensus was not achieved, the rating delivered by most of the assessors was reported.

DATA SYNTHESIS: Of the articles reported, 18 reporting psychometric data were not accessible and therefore could not be assessed. There were 39 that scored <20% of the maximum achievable score, 106 scored between 20% and 40%, 82 scored between 40% and 60%, 15 scored between 60% and 80%, and only 1 scored >80%. The 3 outcome measures associated with the highest scoring datasets were the Sheehan Disability Scale, the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, and the assessment of the Subjective Handicap of Epilepsy. Finally, only 2 psychometric validation datasets reported the complete set of baseline psychometric properties.

CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review highlights the current limitations of the health-related work outcome measure literature, including the limited number of robust tools available.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Cognitive/mental state
Emotional state
Physical state
Functional status:
Cognitive/mental functioning
Physical functioning
Role functioning
Social functioning
Adults (18-65)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the circulatory system
Diseases of and symptoms related to the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
Diseases of and symptoms related to the nervous system
Factors influencing health status and contact with health services
Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes
Mental and behavioural disorders and related symptoms
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
3 - Diaries
ASQ - Absenteeism Screening Questionnaire
AS-WIS - Ankylosing Spondylitis-Work Instability Scale
AWS - Areas of Worklife Scale
Capability Set for Work
CMDQ - Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire
COPSOQ-II - Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire-II
DCSQ - Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire
DISQ - Demand-Induced Strain Compensation Questionnaire
DMQ - Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire
DUWAS - Dutch Workaholism Scale (ook: Dutch Work Addiction Scale)
EEQ - Employment Expectation Questionnaire
ENSS - Expanded Nurse Stress Scale
ERIQ - Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire [alias; ERI - Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale]   
EWPS - Endicott Work Productivity Scale
FABQ - Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire   
Finnish Institute for Occupational Health Questionnaire
HALT index - Headache-Attributed Lost Time Index
HLQ-SF - Health and Labour Questionnaire-Short Form
HRPQ-D - Health-Related Productivity Questionnaire-Diary   
HWQ - Health and Work Questionnaire
IPCQ - iMTA Productivity Cost Questionnaire
IWPQ - Individual Work Performance Questionnaire
IWS - Index of Work Satisfaction
JAWS - Job-related Affective Well-being Scale
JBS - Job Boredom Scale
JCQ - Job Content Questionnaire   
JIS - Job Involvement Scale
LASER - Lam Assessment of Stages of Employment Readiness
LEAPS - Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale
LSQ - Life Situation Questionnaire
Manual-WIS - Manual Work Instability Scale
MMSS - McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale
MSQ - Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (versions: MSQ-SF; mMSQ-SF)
MSWDQ - Multiple Sclerosis Work Difficulties Questionnaire
MSWDQ-SF - Multiple Sclerosis Work Difficulties Questionnaire-Short Form
MS-WIS - Multiple Sclerosis-Work Instability Scale
MWPLQ - Migraine Work and Productivity Loss Questionnaire
NIOSH-GJSQ - U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-Generic Job Stress Questionnaire
NSS - Nursing Stress Scale
Nurse-WIS - Nurse-Work Instability Scale
NWFQ - Nurses Work Functioning Questionnaire
OCS - Organizational Civility Scale
OFS - Occupational Functioning Scale
OISQ - Occupational Impact of Sleep Questionnaire
OLBI - Oldenburg Burnout Inventory
OOQ - Occupational Outcome Questionnaire
ORTWQ - Obstacles to Return-to-Work Questionnaire [alias: ORQ]
OSES (ook: OSS) - Occupational Self-Efficacy Scale
OSI - Occupational Stress Indicator
PES - Psychological Empowerment Scale/Patient Empowerment Scale
PS - Prolo Scale [alias: Prolo Score] [alias: Prolo Economic Functional Rating Scale]
Psychosocial Aspects of Work questionnaire
QPSNordic - General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work
Quantity and Quality Instrument
RAS - Rijeka Absenteeism Scale
RA-WIS - Rheumatoid Arthritis-Work Instability Scale   
RPS - Rijeka Presenteeism Scale
RRTW - Readiness for Return-To-Work
SCI-Work Survey - Spinal Cord Injury-Work Survey
SDS - Sheehan Disability Scale/Inventory
SHE - Subjective Handicap of Epilepsy
SIPQ - Single-Item Presenteeism Question
SPRS - Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale (also children's version; SPRS-C)
SPS-13 - Stanford Presenteeism Scale-13 items
SPS-6 - Stanford Presenteeism Scale-6 items
TBI-WIS - Traumatic Brain Injury-Work Instability Scale
UWES-9 - Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-9 item
UWES - Utrecht Work Engagement Scale
VCRS - Vocational Cognitive Rating Scale
VIS - Vocational Independence Scale
Vocational Outcome Scale
VOLP - Valuation of Lost Productivity
WAI - Work Ability Index   
WALS - Workplace Activity Limitations Scale
WES-RC - Work Experience Survey - Rheumatic Conditions
WFS - Work Function Score
WHO HPQ - World Health Organization Health and work Performance Questionnaire [alias: HPQ - WHO Health and work Performance Questionnaire]
WISE - Work Instability Scale for Epilepsy
WLCS - Work Locus of Control Scale
WLQ - Work Limitations Questionnaire (version: WLQ-25 - 25 items; WLQ-16 items)   
WOAQ - Work Organisation Assessment Questionnaire
Work Assessment Rating Scale
Work-related Stress Questionnaire
WORQ - Work Rehabilitation Questionnaire
WPAI-GH - Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire-General Health
WPAI-SHP - Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-Specific Health Problem
WPP - Work Personality Profile
WPS-RA - Rheumatoid Arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey
WRFQ 2.0 - Work Role Functioning Questionnaire 2.0
WRFQ - Work Role Functioning Questionnaire
WSI-DA - Work Stress Inventory - Dental Assistants
WSS - Workplace Stress Scale