COSMIN database

Frailty assessment instruments in heart failure: A systematic review

McDonagh, J., Martin, L., Ferguson, C., Jha, S. R., Macdonald, P. S., Davidson, P. M., and Newton, P. J.
BACKGROUND: Frailty is an independent predictor of mortality across many conditions. Reported rates of frailty in heart failure range from 15% to 74%. There are several instruments available to assess frailty; however, to date there has been no consensus on the most appropriate instrument for use in individuals with heart failure.

AIMS: To identify how frailty is assessed in individuals with heart failure and to elucidate which domains of frailty are most frequently assessed.

METHODS: Key electronic databases were searched (MEDLINE, COCHRANE Central and CINAHL) to identify studies that assessed frailty in individuals with heart failure using a formal frailty instrument.

RESULTS: Twenty studies published in 24 articles were included, for which a total of seven unique frailty instruments were identified. The most commonly used instrument was the Frailty Phenotype ( n= 11), with the majority of studies using a modified version of the Frailty Phenotype ( n= 8). The second most commonly used instrument identified was the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment ( n= 4).

CONCLUSION: There is an increasing interest in the assessment of frailty, but, to date, there is no frailty instrument validated specifically in the heart failure population.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs
Publication year:
Biological and physiological variables:
Biological and physiological variables
Symptom status:
Cognitive/mental state
Physical state
Functional status:
Cognitive/mental functioning
Physical functioning
Social functioning
Seniors (65+)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the circulatory system
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
4 - Performance-based tests
6 - Clinical rating scales
CGA - Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (versions: FI-CGA; CP-FI-CGA)
CSHA Clinical Frailty Scale - Canadian study of health and aging Clinical Frailty Scale
DAI - Deficit Accumulation Index
FP - Frailty Phenotype (alias: Phenotype of Frailty) (versions: mFP)
FSS - Frailty Staging System
SHARE FI - Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe Frailty Instrument (versions: SHARE FI 75+)
TFI - Tilburg Frailty Indicator