Psychometric properties of carer-reported outcome measures in palliative care: A systematic review
- Michels, C. T., Boulton, M., Adams, A., Wee, B., and Peters, M.
- BACKGROUND: Informal carers face many challenges in caring for patients with palliative care needs. Selecting suitable valid and reliable outcome measures to determine the impact of caring and carers' outcomes is a common problem.
AIM: To identify outcome measures used for informal carers looking after patients with palliative care needs, and to evaluate the measures' psychometric properties.
DESIGN: A systematic review was conducted. The studies identified were evaluated by independent reviewers (C.T.J.M., M.B., M.P.). Data regarding study characteristics and psychometric properties of the measures were extracted and evaluated. Good psychometric properties indicate a high-quality measure.
DATA SOURCES: The search was conducted, unrestricted to publication year, in the following electronic databases: Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index and Sociological Abstracts.
RESULTS: Our systematic search revealed 4505 potential relevant studies, of which 112 studies met the inclusion criteria using 38 carer measures for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Psychometric properties were reported in only 46% (n = 52) of the studies, in relation to 24 measures. Where psychometric data were reported, the focus was mainly on internal consistency (n = 45, 87%), construct validity (n = 27, 52%) and/or reliability (n = 14, 27%). Of these, 24 measures, only four (17%) had been formally validated in informal carers in palliative care.
CONCLUSION: A broad range of outcome measures have been used for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Little formal psychometric testing has been undertaken. Furthermore, development and refinement of measures in this field is required.
- Palliat Med
- Publication year:
- Symptom status:
- Emotional state
- Overall quality of life:
- Overall quality of life
- Adults (18-65)
- Codes for special purposes
- PRO / non-PRO:
- Non-patient Reported Outcome
- Type of measurement instrument:
- 1 - Questionnaires
- AQOL-EOL - Assessment Quality of life–End of life–Spouses
BASC - Brief Assessment Scale for Caregivers
BCOS: Bakas Caregiving Outcomes Scale
BIC - Burden Index of Caregivers
BSFC - Burden Scale for Family Caregivers
CBI - Caregiver Burden Inventory
CBS - Caregiver Burden Scale
CBS-EOLC - Caregiver’s Burden Scale in end-of-life care
CIS - Caregiving Impact Scale
CoH-QoL-F - City of Hope Quality of Life Tool-Family version
CQoLC - Caregiver Quality of Life Index–Cancer
CQOLI-Revised - Caregiver Quality of Life Index-revised
CRA - Caregiver Reaction Assessment Scale
CSI - Caregiver Strain Index [see: ZUYD (NL)]
EORTC QLQ-C30 - European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaires Core-30 item (ALSO shortened version) [see: ZUYD (NL)]
EQ-5D - EuroQoL-5 Dimensions [see: ZUYD (NL)]
FACQ-PC - Family Appraisal of Caregiving Questionnaire for Palliative Care
FACS - Feelings about Caregiving Scale
FACT - Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy
FSQ - Family Strain Questionnaire
HP - Hausliche Pflegeskala
HQLI - Hospice Quality of Life Index
MBCBS - Montgomery Borgatta Caregiver Burden Scale
MQOL - McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire (also: MQOL-CSF - MQOL-Cardiff Short form)
MS - Montgomery Scale
QOL-family - quality of life-family
QOLI - Lehman Quality of Life Interview/Index
QoLLTI-F - Quality of Life in Life-Threatening Illness–Family Carer Version
QoLS - Quality of Life Scale
RCAS - Revised Caregiving Appraisal Scale
SF-12 - 12-item Short Form Health Survey
SF-36 - 36-item Short Form Health Survey [see: proqolid, ZUYD (NL)]
SF-8 - MOS Short Form 8 items
SWED-QOL - Swedish Health-Related QOL Survey
WHOQOL - World Health Organization Quality of Life
ZBI - Zarit Burden Interview