COSMIN database

Patient-Reported Mobility: A Systematic Review

Pinto-Carral, A., Fernandez-Villa, T., and Molina de la Torre, A. J.
OBJECTIVES: To identify the self-administered instruments to assess mobility in adults with disability, to link the mobility assessed by these instruments to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and to evaluate their methodological quality.

DATA SOURCES: Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science were systematically searched up to July 2015.

STUDY SELECTION: Studies on the development and validation of self-administered questionnaires in which at least half of the items were related to movement or mobility were included.

DATA EXTRACTION: The mobility assessed by the instruments was classified according to the ICF categories. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments checklist.

DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 5791 articles, 34 studies were eligible for inclusion. Only 10 of the instruments contained items that exclusively assessed mobility. The most frequently linked ICF categories were "changing basic body position" (19.4%), "walking" (14.8%), and "moving around" (13.5%). Measurement properties evaluated included internal consistency (5 studies), reliability (5 studies), measurement error (1 study), content validity (9 studies), structural validity (4 studies), hypotheses testing (6 studies), and responsiveness (1 study). Only content validity obtained the highest quality, probably because the studies included in the review reported the development and initial validation of the instruments.

CONCLUSIONS: Self-administered mobility questionnaires published in the scientific literature assess mobility activities rather than functions related to movement, and do so from the perspective of disability, frequently including self-care and domestic life as domains for assessment. The instruments that presented the highest methodological quality were the Outpatient Physical Therapy Improvement in Movement Assessment Log, the Movement Ability Measure, and the Mobility Activities Measure for Inpatient Rehabilitation Settings.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
Publication year:
Functional status:
Physical functioning
Role functioning
Social functioning
Adults (18-65)
Codes for special purposes
Diseases of and symptoms related to the ear and mastoid process
Diseases of and symptoms related to the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
Pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium and related symptom
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
AAQ - Animated Activity Questionnaire   
ABILOCO questionnaire
BASFI - Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index
BPFS - Back Pain Functional Scale
CIPN-R-ODS - Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy Rasch-built Overall Disability Scale
Climbing Stairs Questionnaire
DFI - Dougados Functional Index
DRI - Disability Rating Index   
FAAM - Foot and Ankle Ability Measure
FACS - Functional Abilities Confidence Scale
FLEX-SF - Flexilevel Scale of Shoulder Function
GFS - General Function Score
LCI - Locomotor Capabilities Index
LEFS - Lower Extremity Function Scale
LLFDI - Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument
LSDI - Lumbar Stiffness Disability Index
MAM - Movement Ability Measure
MAT-sf - Mobility Assessment Tool
MobAM-in - Mobility Activities Measure for Inpatient Rehabilitation Settings
MobAM - Mobility Activities Measure
MOSES - Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects
ODI - Oswestry Disability Index   
OPTIMAL - Outpatient Physical Therapy Improvement in Movement Assessment Log
PGQ - Pelvic Girdle Questionnaire
PLAN-Q - Perceived Limitations and Needs Questionnaire
PMI - Pregnancy Mobility Index
QBPDS - Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale   
QR&S - Questionnaire Rising and Sitting Down
RMDQ - Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire    
SIGAM - Special Interest Group in Amputee Medicine (SIGAM) mobility grades questionnaire
Spinal Function Sort
SST - Simple Shoulder Test [alias; Patte score]   
VAP - vestibular activities and participation measure
Walking Questionnaire