COSMIN database

Measures for Pain and Function Assessments for Patients With Osteoarthritis

Saleh, K. J. and Davis, A.
INTRODUCTION: To develop an osteoarthritis (OA) quality measure that satisfies quality-reporting initiatives, a systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify and evaluate measures of pain and function commonly used to assess outcomes in patients with upper and lower extremity OA.

METHODS: English-language systematic reviews and meta-analyses evaluating validity of pain and function instruments in OA patients published between 1995 and 2014 were considered for inclusion. The quality of all included studies was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II instrument (AGREE II).

RESULTS: More than 90 pain and/or functional assessment tools were evaluated within the 16 systematic reviews included in this analysis. Of the 16 systematic reviews, 6 articles had high-quality study designs; the remaining 10 reviews had moderate-quality study designs.

CONCLUSION: There currently exists no OA pain and functional assessment tool capable of meeting the stringent requirements established by newer quality-reporting programs. The use of invalidated or unreliable patient-reported outcome measures may improperly estimate patient pain and functional status, which could affect treatment options, patient satisfaction, reimbursement, and/or quality of life.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Cognitive/mental state
Emotional state
Physical state
Functional status:
Physical functioning
General health perceptions / HRQoL:
Health-related quality of life
Adults (18-65)
Seniors (65+)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
PRO / non-PRO:
Non-patient Reported Outcome
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
4 - Performance-based tests
6 - Clinical rating scales
10 meter Max Speed Walk
AAOS Hip and Knee Questionnaire - American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons Hip and Knee Questionnaire
ADL difficulty scale
AIMS2 - Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2   
AIMS - Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (versions; sAIMS; shortened AIMS)
ALF - Aggregated Locomotor Function
AOFAS-Ankle/Hindfoot Scale - American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society-Ankle/Hindfoot Scale
AOS - Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale
ASES - American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons
AUSCAN - Australian/Canadian Hand Osteoarthritis Index
Baecke questionnaire   
CMC grind test - Carpometacarpal grind test
Cochin Scale
DASH - Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (versions: DASH Modified)   
Eaton Classification
EQ-5D - EuroQoL-5 Dimensions   
FAS - Functional Assessment System
FFI - Foot Function Index
FIHOA - Functional Index of Hand Osteoarthritis
HAP - Human Activity Profile
HAQ - Health Assessment Questionnaire (versions:MHAQ - Modified HAQ; HAQ-II)   
HFI/KFT - HFI/KFT = Hand Functional Index of the Keitel Functional Test
HHS - Harris Hip Score (versions: mHHS)   
HOOS - Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score   
ILAS - Iowa Level of Assistance Scale
J-MAP - Joint-Specific Multidimensional Assessment of Pain
Jones score
Kofoed ankle score
KOOS - Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (versions: KOOS-Child; KOOS-Joint Replacement; KOOS-12; KOOS-PF - KOOS PatelloFemoral pain and osteoarthritis)   
KPS - Knee Pain Scale
KSPS - Knee-Specific Pain Scale
LAI-hip - Lequesne Algofunctional Index for the severity of osteoarthritis of the hip [alias: LISH][alias: LISOH]   
LAI-knee - Lequesne Algofunctional Index for the severity of osteoarthritis of the knee [alias: LISK][alias: LISOK]   
LEAS - Lower Extremity Activity Scale
LEFS - Lower Extremity Function Scale
Lequesne modified
Lin Battery Test
MFA - Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (versions: SMFA)
MPQ - McGill Pain Questionnaire (versions MPQ-SF)    
Nelson Score
NHP - Nottingham Health Profile   
NRS - Numeric Rating Scale (versions: NRS-6; NRS-11; NRS-21)   
Number of painful days
OKS - Oxford Knee Score   
PAR - Physical Activity Restrictions test
PASS - Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale   
PCS - Pain Catastrophizing Scale (versions: PCS-Parent; PCS-Child)   
PCS - Physical Composite Score
PDI - Pain Disability Index   
Personal Burden of Osteoarthritis
PFC - physical function composite (based on SF-36, SF-12, or SF-8)
PGA - Patient Global Assessment
PRATHoT - Patient Response Assessment Tool After Homeopathic Treatment
PRWE - Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation [alias: PRWHE - Patient Rated Wrist/Hand Evaluation]   
QR&S - Questionnaire Rising and Sitting Down
Quick DASH - Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand   
SES - Self-efficacy Scale
SF-36 - 36-item Short Form Health Survey [alias: RAND-36][alias: Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-36]]    |  | also see:
SIP - Sickness Impact Profile   
Stratford Battery
VAS - Visual Analogue Scale (versions: vertical; horizontal)   
WIQ - Walking Impairment Questionnaire   
WOMAC - Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (versions: Individualized WOMAC; WOMAC-Likert Scale; WOMACsf; WOMAC-12)