COSMIN database

Patient-reported depression measures in cancer: a meta-review

Wakefield, C. E., Butow, P. N., Aaronson, N. A., Hack, T. F., Hulbert-Williams, N. J., and Jacobsen, P. B.
The patient-reported depression measures that perform best in oncology settings have not yet been identified. We did a meta-review to integrate the findings of reviews of more than 50 depression measures used in adults with, or recovering from, any type of cancer. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and grey literature from 1999 to 2014 to identify 19 reviews representing 372 primary studies. 11 reviews were rated as being of high quality (defined as meeting at least 20 criteria in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement). The Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) was the most thoroughly evaluated measure, but was limited by cutpoint variability. The HADS had moderate screening utility indices and was least recommended in advanced cancer or palliative care. The Beck Depression Inventory was more generalisable across cancer types and disease stages, with good indices for screening and case finding. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was the best-weighted measure in terms of responsiveness. This meta-review provides a comprehensive overview of the strengths and limitations of available depression measures. It can inform the choice of the best measure for specific settings and purposes.
Lancet Psychiatry
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Emotional state
Adults (18-65)
Neoplasms and related symptoms
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
BDI - Beck Depression Inventory   
BDI-II - Beck Depression Inventory-II   
BDI-SF - Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form
BEDS - Brief Edinburgh Depression Scale
BSI-18 - Brief Symptom Inventory-18 items
BSI-53 - Brief Symptom Inventory-53 items
CDQ - Combination Depression Question
CES-D - Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale   
DT - Distress Thermometer   
EDS - Edinburgh Depression Scale
GDS-15 - Geriatric Depression Scale-15 items
GDS - Geriatric Depression Scale   
GHQ-12 - General Health Questionnaire 12 items
GHQ-28 - General Health Questionnaire 28 items
GHQ-30 - General Health Questionnaire 30 items
GHQ - General Health Questionnaire
HADS-D - Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression Scale
HADS - Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale   
MEQ - Mood Evaluation Questionnaire
MHI - Mental Health Inventory (verisons: MHI-5 ; MHI-5 items; MHI-38 - MHI 38 items)
PDI - Psychological Distress Inventory
PHQ-9 - Patient Health Questionnaire-9
POMS-37 - Profile of Mood States-37 items
POMS-65 - Profile of Mood States-65 items
RSCL - Rotterdam Symptom Checklist   
SCL-90-R - Symptom Checklist 90-Revised
SDS - Zung Self-rating Depression Scale