COSMIN database

Patient-reported outcome measures in recurrent aphthous stomatitis: A critical assessment of quality properties

Wiriyakijja, P., Fedele, S., Porter, S., Mercadante, V., and Ni Riordain, R.
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the range of existing patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) used in studies of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) and to evaluate their quality properties via the assessment of psychometric properties and interpretability.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant publications related to PROMs used in RAS. Publications were selected based on predefined criteria. All identified PROMs were then classified by measuring concepts and assessed for instrument characteristics and evidence for quality properties for RAS patients.

RESULTS: Twenty-eight PROMs were used in studies of RAS patients. Instruments focused upon oral symptoms (n = 4), psychosocial status (n = 15) and quality of life (n = 9). Five PROMs (Oral Health-related Quality of Life-UK, Chronic Oral Mucosal Disease Questionnaire, Oral Health Impact Profile-14, Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 and Mumcu's composite index) were found to have some evidence of psychometric performance. No PROMs showed evidence for interpretability of their scores in RAS patients.

CONCLUSION: There was a wide range of PROMs used in clinical studies of RAS. The majority of these PROMs lack evidence of measurement properties and interpretability for RAS patients. Further studies are required to confirm whether these instruments are suitable and useful for this patient group.
Oral Dis
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Cognitive/mental state
Emotional state
Physical state
Functional status:
Physical functioning
General health perceptions / HRQoL:
Health-related quality of life
Adults (18-65)
Children (0-18)
Seniors (65+)
Diseases of and symptoms related to the digestive system
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
BAI - Beck Anxiety Inventory
BDI - Beck Depression Inventory   
Brief-Cope - Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory-short version of COPE (versions: French version)   
BSI - Brief Symptom Inventory
CES-D - Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale   
COMDQ - Chronic Oral Mucosal Disease Questionnaire
COPE - Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory   
CSS - Change in Symptoms Scale
DASS - Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (Versions: DASS-42 and DASS-21)
FKV-LIS - Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness-short form
F-SoZu - Evaluation of the short-form social support questionnaire (Also: F-SoZu-K22 - short version)
GHQ-12 - General Health Questionnaire 12 items
GHQ-28 - General Health Questionnaire 28 items
HADS - Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale   
Hardiness Scale
Hassanyeh RADV - Hassanyeh Rating of Anxiety- Depression-Vulnerability
KKG - Health/Illness Locus of Control Questionnaire
LISS - Lipp’s Inventory of Stress Symptoms of Adults
MACL - Mood Adjective Check List
MNESRES - Multidimensional Negative Emotions Self-Regulatory Efficacy Scale
NRS - Numeric Rating Scale   
OHIP - Oral Health Impact Profile (versions: OHIP-49 - 49 items; OHIP-14, OHIP-20, OHIP-G (German version of the Oral Heath Impact Profile), OHIP-G5 and OHIP-G21)
OHQoL-UK - UK Oral Health-related Quality of Life Measure
PGWBI - Psychological General Well-Being index [alias: PGWB] (Also: PGWBI-S - short form)
POMS - Profile of Mood States
PSQ - Perceived Stress Questionnaire
PSS - Perceived Stress Scale (versions: PSS-10 items)
SBI-14-R-D - Systems of Belief Inventory
SCL-90 - Symptom Checklist-90
SF-12 - 12-item Short Form Health Survey [alias: RAND-12]
SF-36 - 36-item Short Form Health Survey [alias: RAND-36][alias: Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-36]]    |  | also see:
SRQ - Self-Report Questionnaire
SRRS - Social Readjustment Rating Scale
STAI - State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
STAXI-2 - State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-revised version
TRE - Test of Recent Experience
UCLA Loneliness Scale - University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale
UWQOL (Also: UWQOL-V4)- University of Washington Quality-of-life Instrument (also version 4)
VAS - Visual Analogue Scale   
WCQ - Ways of Coping Questionnaire