COSMIN database

Patient-reported outcome measures in oral lichen planus: A comprehensive review of the literature with focus on psychometric properties and interpretability

Wiriyakijja, P., Fedele, S., Porter, S. R., Mercadante, V., and Ni Riordain, R.
OBJECTIVE: To review the range of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) used in clinical studies of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and to assess their psychometric properties and interpretability.

METHODS: Literature searches were performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases (1990-September 2016) to retrieve relevant studies related to the development, psychometric testing and/or use of PROMs assessing oral symptoms, psychosocial status and quality of life in individuals with OLP. The identified PROMs were then categorised by concept measured and assessed for instrument characteristics and evidence for psychometric properties and interpretability.

RESULTS: We identified a total of 41 PROMs used in clinical studies for the assessment of patient-reported outcomes in patients with OLP. There were three PROMs of oral symptoms, 30 PROMs of psychosocial status and eight PROMs of quality of life. Six instruments (Visual Analog Scale, Numerical Rating Scale, Change in Symptom Scale, Oral Health Impact Profile-14, Oral Health-related Quality of Life-UK and Chronic Oral Mucosal Disease Questionnaire) demonstrated some evidence of psychometric properties but no evidence for interpretability of their results in the OLP population.

CONCLUSION: The range of PROMs used in clinical studies of patients with OLP is wide and include instruments for oral symptoms, psychosocial status and quality of life. The vast majority of these instruments have no evidence of psychometric properties and interpretability for patients with OLP. Further qualitative and validation studies are required to investigate whether these instruments are appropriate for use in this patient population.
J Oral Pathol Med
Publication year:
Symptom status:
Cognitive/mental state
Emotional state
Physical state
Functional status:
Cognitive/mental functioning
Physical functioning
Social functioning
General health perceptions / HRQoL:
Health-related quality of life
Adults (18-65)
Seniors (65+)
Certain infections and parasitic diseases and related symptoms
Diseases of and symptoms related to the digestive system
Diseases of and symptoms related to the skin and subcutaneous tissue
PRO / non-PRO:
Patient Reported Outcome
Type of measurement instrument:
1 - Questionnaires
BAI - Beck Anxiety Inventory
BDI - Beck Depression Inventory   
Brief-Cope - Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory-short version of COPE   
BSI - Brief Symptom Inventory
CES-D - Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale   
COMDQ - Chronic Oral Mucosal Disease Questionnaire
COPE - Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory   
CSS - Change in Symptoms Scale
DASS - Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (ALSO: DASS-42 and DASS-21)
FKV-LIS - Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness-short form
F-SoZu - Evaluation of the short-form social support questionnaire (Also: F-SoZu-K22 - short version)
GHQ-12 - General Health Questionnaire 12 items
GHQ-28 - General Health Questionnaire 28 items
HADS - Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale   
Hardiness Scale
Hassanyeh RADV - Hassanyeh Rating of Anxiety- Depression-Vulnerability
KKG - Health/Illness Locus of Control Questionnaire
LISS - Lipp’s Inventory of Stress Symptoms of Adults
MACL - Mood Adjective Check List
MNESRES - Multidimensional Negative Emotions Self-Regulatory Efficacy Scale
NRS - Numeric Rating Scale [alias: NPRS - Numeric Pain Rating Scale]   
OHIP-49 - Oral Health Impact Profile 49 items Also: OHIP-14, OHIP-20, OHIP-G (German version of the Oral Heath Impact Profile), OHIP-G5 and OHIP-G21
OHQoL-UK - UK Oral Health-related Quality of Life Measure
PGWBI - Psychological General Well-Being index [alias: PGWB] (Also: PGWBI-S - short form)
POMS - Profile of Mood States
PSQ - Perceived Stress Questionnaire
PSS - Perceived Stress Scale
SBI-14-R-D - Systems of Belief Inventory
SCL-90 - Symptom Checklist-90
SF-12 - 12-item Short Form Health Survey [alias: RAND-12]
SF-36 - 36-item Short Form Health Survey [alias: RAND-36][alias: Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-36]]    |  | also see:
SRQ - Self-Report Questionnaire
SRRS - Social Readjustment Rating Scale
STAI - State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
STAXI-2 - State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-revised version
TRE - Test of Recent Experience
UCLA V3 - University of California, Los Angeles, Loneliness Scale
UWQOL (Also: UWQOL-V4)- University of Washington Quality-of-life Instrument (also version 4)
VAS - Visual Analogue Scale   
WCQ - Ways of Coping Questionnaire